Klimatická zmena a ECB

ECB skúma možnosti, ako sa účinne zapojiť do boja proti klimatickej zmene. Pracujeme na odhaľovaní rizík spojených s klimatickou zmenou, ktoré by mohli ohroziť ekonomiku a finančný systém. Klimatická zmena môže ekonomiku zasiahnuť extrémnymi poveternostnými javmi a neistotou súvisiacou s prechodom na nízkouhlíkové hospodárstvo.


„V rámci revízie našej menovopolitickej stratégie posúdime, kde a ako sa môže problematika klimatickej zmeny a boj proti zmene klímy konkrétne dotknúť našej politiky.“

Christine Lagardová, prezidentka ECB


ECB podniká kroky v štyroch oblastiach svojej pôsobnosti

Ekonomická analýza

Pracovníci ECB zabezpečujú, aby sa klimatická zmena zohľadňovala v makroekonomických modeloch, prognostických metódach a hodnoteniach rizík uplatňovaných v ECB.

Bankový dohľad

Pracovníci dohľadu spolupracujú s bankami na zvyšovaní informovanosti o rizikách vyplývajúcich z klimatickej zmeny. Cieľom je zabezpečiť, aby boli banky schopné tieto riziká adekvátne riadiť.

Menová politika a investičné portfóliá

So zreteľom na potrebu predchádzať deformáciám trhu ECB v rámci programov nákupu aktív investuje do tzv. zelených dlhopisov.

Finančná stabilita

Odborníci na oblasť finančnej stability merajú a vyhodnocujú riziká, ktoré klimatická zmena predstavuje pre finančný systém. O svojich zisteniach informujú verejnosť, účastníkov trhu i tvorcov politiky.


Network for Greening the Financial System (NGFS)

ECB je členom siete pre ekologizáciu finančného systému (Network for Greening the Financial System – NGFS). Ide o skupinu centrálnych bánk a orgánov dohľadu z piatich kontinentov, ktorých cieľom je podpora a hľadanie možností prechodu na nízkouhlíkové hospodárstvo.

Viac informácií


Ďalšie iniciatívy

Zelená ECB

Neustále pracujeme na znižovaní ekologickej stopy ECB. Ak vás zaujímajú naše doterajšie výsledky, navštívte našu stránku ECB a ochrana životného prostredia.

Európsky týždeň mobility

ECB sa pravidelne zúčastňuje na tomto podujatí, prostredníctvom ktorého motivuje kolegov, aby si na cestu do práce zvolili čo najekologickejší spôsob dopravy.

Hodina Zeme

ECB sa do tohto podujatia zapája od roku 2012. Zhasnutím svetiel v hlavnej budove sa usilujeme zvyšovať povedomie o klimatickej zmene.


Prejavy a rozhovory

27 Feb 2020
Christine Lagarde: Climate change and the financial sector
Speech by Christine Lagarde, President of the ECB, at the launch of the COP 26 Private Finance Agenda, London
21 Nov 2019
Luis de Guindos: Implications of the transition to a low-carbon economy for the euro area financial system
Speech by Luis de Guindos, Vice-President of the ECB, at the European Savings and Retail Banking Group Conference, “Creating sustainable financial structures by putting citizens first”
21 Nov 2019
Andrea Enria: Regulation, proportionality and the sustainability of banking
Speech by Andrea Enria, Chair of the Supervisory Board of the ECB, at the Retail Banking Conference "Creating sustainable financial structures by putting citizens first" of European Savings Bank Group, in Brussels
17 Oct 2019
Luis de Guindos: Climate-related risks
Speaking notes by Luis de Guindos, Vice-President of the ECB, at roundtable event on climate-related risks at Bloomberg
9 Sept 2019
Pentti Hakkarainen: The greening of the financial sector
Speech by Pentti Hakkarainen, Member of the Supervisory Board of the ECB, at the Hannes Snellman Financial Law Seminar, Helsinki, 9 September 2019
15 May 2019
Frank Elderson: We need to ensure resilience to climate-change risk
Interview with Frank Elderson, Member of the Supervisory Board of the ECB, Supervision Newsletter, 15 May 2019
17 Apr 2019
Sabine Lautenschläger: Central Bankers, Supervisors and Climate-Related Risks
Panel remarks by Sabine Lautenschläger, Member of the Executive Board of the ECB, at the Network for Greening the Financial System Conference, in Paris, France, 17 April 2019
27 Nov 2018
Yves Mersch: Climate change and central banking
Speech by Yves Mersch, Member of the Executive Board of the ECB, Workshop discussion: Sustainability is becoming mainstream, Frankfurt, 27 November 2018
8 Nov 2018
Benoît Cœuré: Monetary policy and climate change
Speech by Benoît Cœuré, Member of the Executive Board of the ECB, at a conference on “Scaling up Green Finance: The Role of Central Banks”, organised by the Network for Greening the Financial System, the Deutsche Bundesbank and the Council on Economic Policies, Berlin, 8 November 2018

Výskumné práce

No. 64
27 Nov 2019
Research bulletin
Finance and decarbonisation: why equity markets do it better

Abstract

JEL Classification

G10 : Financial Economics→General Financial Markets→General

O4 : Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth→Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity

Q5 : Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics, Environmental and Ecological Economics→Environmental Economics

Abstract

This article provides evidence that economies receiving more funding from stock markets than credit markets generate fewer carbon emissions. Increasing the equity financing share to one-half globally would reduce aggregate per capita emissions by about one-quarter of the Paris Agreement commitment. Our findings call for supporting equity-based initiatives rather than policies aimed at decarbonising the European economy through the banking sector.

No. 2318
26 Sep 2019
ECB Working Paper Series
Finance and carbon emissions

Abstract

JEL Classification

G10 : Financial Economics→General Financial Markets→General

O4 : Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth→Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity

Q5 : Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics, Environmental and Ecological Economics→Environmental Economics

Abstract

We study the relation between the structure of financial systems and carbon emissions in a large panel of countries and industries over the period 1990-2013. We find that for given levels of economic and financial development and environmental regulation, CO2 emissions per capita are lower in economies that are relatively more equity-funded. Industry-level analysis reveals two distinct channels. First, stock markets reallocate investment towards less polluting sectors. Second, they also push carbon-intensive sectors to develop and implement greener technologies. In line with this second effect, we show that carbon-intensive sectors produce more green patents as stock markets deepen. We also document an increase in carbon emissions associated with the production of imported goods equal to around one-tenth of the reduction in domestic carbon emissions.

29 May 2019
Financial Stability Review
Climate change and financial stability

Abstract

JEL Classification

G01 : Financial Economics→General→Financial Crises

G18 : Financial Economics→General Financial Markets→Government Policy and Regulation

G20 : Financial Economics→Financial Institutions and Services→General

Q54 : Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics, Environmental and Ecological Economics→Environmental Economics→Climate, Natural Disasters, Global Warming

Abstract

This special feature discusses the channels through which climate change can affect financial stability and illustrates the exposure of euro area financial institutions to risks from climate change with the help of granular data. Notwithstanding currently limited data availability, the analysis shows that climate change-related risks have the potential to become systemic for the euro area, in particular if markets are not pricing the risks correctly. A deeper understanding of the relevance of climate change-related risks for the euro area financial system at large is therefore needed. Better data availability and comparability and the development of a forward-looking framework for risk assessments are important aspects of this work going forward.

No. 2247
25 Feb 2019
ECB Working Paper Series
The Green Golden Rule: habit and anticipation of future consumption

Abstract

JEL Classification

D90 : Microeconomics→Intertemporal Choice→General

Q56 : Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics, Environmental and Ecological Economics→Environmental Economics→Environment and Development, Environment and Trade, Sustainability, Environmental Accounts and Accounting, Environmental Equity, Population Growth

G20 : Financial Economics→Financial Institutions and Services→General

Q54 : Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics, Environmental and Ecological Economics→Environmental Economics→Climate, Natural Disasters, Global Warming

Abstract

We derive the Green Golden Rule (GGR) in the Habit Formation (HF) and Anticipation of Future Consumption (AFC) frameworks. Since consumption is the key variable of GGR, time non-separabilities in preferences over consumption streams, given by the AFC and HF, may have important impacts on the environment and sustainability. We demonstrate that agents who smooth their consumption patterns, according to the HF hypothesis, are more likely to preserve the environment than those who anticipate future consumption or who do not so smooth consumption.

Issue 7/2018
8 Nov 2018
Economic Bulletin
Purchases of green bonds under the Eurosystem’s asset purchase programme

Abstract

JEL Classification

D90 : Microeconomics→Intertemporal Choice→General

Q56 : Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics, Environmental and Ecological Economics→Environmental Economics→Environment and Development, Environment and Trade, Sustainability, Environmental Accounts and Accounting, Environmental Equity, Population Growth

G20 : Financial Economics→Financial Institutions and Services→General

Q54 : Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics, Environmental and Ecological Economics→Environmental Economics→Climate, Natural Disasters, Global Warming

Abstract

We derive the Green Golden Rule (GGR) in the Habit Formation (HF) and Anticipation of Future Consumption (AFC) frameworks. Since consumption is the key variable of GGR, time non-separabilities in preferences over consumption streams, given by the AFC and HF, may have important impacts on the environment and sustainability. We demonstrate that agents who smooth their consumption patterns, according to the HF hypothesis, are more likely to preserve the environment than those who anticipate future consumption or who do not so smooth consumption.

No. 1982
21 Nov 2016
ECB Working Paper Series
The impact of disasters on inflation

Abstract

JEL Classification

E31 : Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics→Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles→Price Level, Inflation, Deflation

Q54 : Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics, Environmental and Ecological Economics→Environmental Economics→Climate, Natural Disasters, Global Warming

G20

Abstract

This paper studies how disasters aff ect consumer price inflation, one of the main remaining gaps in our understanding of the impact of disasters. There is a marked heterogeneity in the impact between advanced economies, where the impact is negligible, and developing economies, where the impact can last for several years. There are also di fferences in the impact by type of disasters, particularly when considering inflation sub-indices. Storms in- crease food price inflation in the near term, although the eff ect dissipates within a year. Floods also typically have a short-run impact on inflation. Earthquakes reduce CPI inflation excluding food, housing and energy.