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Ana-Simona Manu

11 January 2024
ECONOMIC BULLETIN - BOX
Economic Bulletin Issue 8, 2023
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Abstract
The US Treasury securities market is the largest and most liquid in the world. Recently, however, its liquidity has declined owing to a combination of factors, including monetary policy tightening and elevated uncertainty about inflation and growth. At the same time, leveraged funds have built up unusually large net short positions in the US Treasury futures market. This box provides empirical evidence that the impact of a US monetary policy shock on domestic and global bond markets may vary depending on conditions in the US Treasury market. Specifically, the results suggest that the effect of a US monetary policy shock might be stronger when market liquidity is low or when net short positions of leveraged funds are large.
JEL Code
E5 : Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics→Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit
F3 : International Economics→International Finance
G1 : Financial Economics→General Financial Markets
2 November 2023
WORKING PAPER SERIES - No. 2861
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Abstract
Using daily data since 2017, we disentangle China-specific structural shocks driving Chinese financial markets and examine spillovers across global markets. The novelty of this paper consists of simultaneously identifying China shocks with shocksemanating from the United States and shocks to global risk sentiment – two major forces driving global financial markets – to ensure that China spillover estimates do not reflect common factors. Our results show that shocks originating in China havematerial impacts on global equity markets, although spillovers are much smaller than those following shocks in the United States, or those triggered by shifts in global risk sentiment. By contrast, shocks from China account for a significant proportion of variation in global commodity prices, more on a par with those of the United States. Nevertheless, spillovers from China can be significantly amplified in an environment of heightened global volatility, or when the shocks are large.
JEL Code
E44 : Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics→Money and Interest Rates→Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy
E52 : Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics→Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit→Monetary Policy
G15 : Financial Economics→General Financial Markets→International Financial Markets
27 March 2023
ECONOMIC BULLETIN - BOX
Economic Bulletin Issue 2, 2023
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Abstract
This box provides initial evidence of the impact on global oil markets and Russian oil flows of the EU embargo and the G7 price cap on Russian oil imposed in response to Russia’s war of aggression in Ukraine. Overall, international oil prices have declined amid resilient supply from Russia and lower global demand, despite the expected rebound of the Chinese economy. After some initial bottlenecks, Russia managed to redirect most of its crude oil exports from Europe to Asia, but only by continuing to offer significant price discounts relative to global prices. However, a stronger impact on global oil markets could still materialise, particularly as, since February, Russia has officially prohibited sales of crude oil to countries that adhere to the price cap mechanism. In addition, the sanctions on refined oil products are only in the early phase of implementation, with initial evidence showing that Russia is partly redirecting those flows towards Africa and unknown destinations while, in the absence of Russian imports, the European diesel market remains tight.
JEL Code
E21 : Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics→Consumption, Saving, Production, Investment, Labor Markets, and Informal Economy→Consumption, Saving, Wealth
E32 : Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics→Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles→Business Fluctuations, Cycles
14 February 2023
ECONOMIC BULLETIN - BOX
Economic Bulletin Issue 1, 2023
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Abstract
As a result of the Russian curtailment of gas deliveries, the EU gas market has become increasingly interlinked with the Asian market for liquified natural gas (LNG). This box analyses global risks to the EU gas market in 2023 by focusing on two supply risks: (i) the ongoing risk to the remaining gas imports from Russia, and (ii) a rebound in Chinese energy demand resulting from the easing of coronavirus (COVID-19) lockdown measures. If the EU decides to extend its current gas saving plan to the end of 2023, it could avoid facing a supply deficit, as long as Russia continues to deliver gas at the current low levels and Chinese gas demand remains low. However, if Russia cuts the remaining gas supplies to the EU and Chinese gas demand rebounds to 2021 levels, the EU could face a supply deficit of around 9% of projected gas consumption, and if one of the supply risks materialises, the EU’s supply deficit would be 2-4%. While there are ways of plugging this gap, EU gas security would become vulnerable to other less foreseeable shocks. For example, severe weather or a prolonged cold spell could deplete gas storage levels faster than expected and worsen the 2023 gas outlook.
JEL Code
E21 : Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics→Consumption, Saving, Production, Investment, Labor Markets, and Informal Economy→Consumption, Saving, Wealth
E32 : Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics→Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles→Business Fluctuations, Cycles
25 May 2022
FINANCIAL STABILITY REVIEW - BOX
Financial Stability Review Issue 1, 2022
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Abstract
This box looks at how Chinese macro risk shocks identified from movements in Chinese and US asset prices can affect global and European financial markets. It finds that shocks emanating from China have a noticeable effect on global financial markets, although the impact is smaller than in the case of shocks originating in the United States or global risk shocks. Shocks originating in China have larger spillover effects on commodity markets and they also affect European bank valuations, with a greater impact when general market conditions are more volatile.
JEL Code
D53 : Microeconomics→General Equilibrium and Disequilibrium→Financial Markets
E44 : Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics→Money and Interest Rates→Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy
G15 : Financial Economics→General Financial Markets→International Financial Markets
15 February 2022
WORKING PAPER SERIES - No. 2641
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Abstract
The paper quantitatively assesses the importance of supply-side drivers in the transition of the Japanese economy from low-skilled to high-skilled sectors and its implication for growth, labor demand and labor income shares. A sectoral supply-side system, estimated over the 1980-2012 period, reveals different rates of technical progress across production factors and sectors, but also heterogeneity in the sectoral elasticity of substitution between capital and labor. The fact that capital and labor are easily substitutable in low-skilled services but not in high-skilled services, coupled with the dominant role of capital-augmenting technical change in services is a key factor behind the relocation of labor towards high-skilled services, as well as behind the declining trend in the labor income share in low-skilled services.
JEL Code
O47 : Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth→Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity→Measurement of Economic Growth, Aggregate Productivity, Cross-Country Output Convergence
O33 : Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth→Technological Change, Research and Development, Intellectual Property Rights→Technological Change: Choices and Consequences, Diffusion Processes
J23 : Labor and Demographic Economics→Demand and Supply of Labor→Labor Demand
10 November 2021
ECONOMIC BULLETIN - BOX
Economic Bulletin Issue 7, 2021
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Abstract
This box reviews recent data for evidence of scarring effects stemming from the coronavirus (COVID-19) shock on the global economy (excluding the euro area). Taking a production function approach perspective, it analyses recent data relevant for determining the evolution of potential output and compares them with developments in the aftermath of the Great Recession. The stylised facts suggest that the level of global potential output has declined during the pandemic, albeit less than during the Great Recession. This decline can mostly be attributed to temporary factors, although more lasting damage may occur if people remain out of work for longer, loose their skills or become long-term unemployed.
JEL Code
E22 : Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics→Consumption, Saving, Production, Investment, Labor Markets, and Informal Economy→Capital, Investment, Capacity
E23 : Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics→Consumption, Saving, Production, Investment, Labor Markets, and Informal Economy→Production
E24 : Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics→Consumption, Saving, Production, Investment, Labor Markets, and Informal Economy→Employment, Unemployment, Wages, Intergenerational Income Distribution, Aggregate Human Capital
2 August 2021
ECONOMIC BULLETIN - BOX
Economic Bulletin Issue 5, 2021
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Abstract
The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has led to the accumulation of a large stock of household savings across advanced economies. Owing to their large size, the savings accumulated since early 2020 could significantly influence the post-pandemic recovery path. The central question is whether households will spend heavily once pandemic-related restrictions are lifted and consumer confidence returns, or whether other motives (e.g. precautionary, deleveraging) will keep households from spending their accumulated excess savings. This box reviews the main economic arguments supporting the hypothesis that any reduction in the accumulated stock of savings is likely to be limited in the medium term. However, given the considerable uncertainty surrounding these arguments, it also illustrates two alternative scenarios for the stock of the accumulated savings (a “cut-back” scenario and a “build-up” scenario) and assesses their possible implications for the global economic outlook.
JEL Code
F32 : International Economics→International Finance→Current Account Adjustment, Short-Term Capital Movements
F41 : International Economics→Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance→Open Economy Macroeconomics
5 August 2019
ECONOMIC BULLETIN - BOX
Economic Bulletin Issue 5, 2019
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Abstract
While both global activity and trade have been declining since mid-2018, world trade has slowed particularly sharply. This box investigates the reasons behind the decline in global trade and its decoupling from economic activity. This is largely explained by a turnaround in the most trade-intensive components of global demand, such as investment, exacerbated by rising global uncertainty and tighter financing conditions. From a production perspective, the decline in investment was reflected in a sharp slowdown in manufacturing output.
JEL Code
F44 : International Economics→Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance→International Business Cycles
F14 : International Economics→Trade→Empirical Studies of Trade
20 May 2019
WORKING PAPER SERIES - No. 2282
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Abstract
This paper provides a quantitative assessment of the relative importance of global structural shocks for changes in financial conditions across a sample of emerging market economies. We disentangle four key drivers of global financial markets (oil supply shocks, global economic news shocks, US-specific economic news shocks and US monetary shocks) and show that these global factors account for about half of the variation in risky asset prices across EMEs. The influence of global factors for EME interest rates and currencies is much smaller, suggesting that factors beyond the identified global shocks (e.g. domestic or regional shocks) might be more important. In contrast to the recent literature on the global financial cycle which has emphasised the prominent role of US monetary policy, we find that although US monetary shocks have some influence in shaping EME financial markets, the broader global environment plays a significantly stronger role.
JEL Code
E44 : Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics→Money and Interest Rates→Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy
E52 : Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics→Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit→Monetary Policy
G15 : Financial Economics→General Financial Markets→International Financial Markets
26 September 2018
WORKING PAPER SERIES - No. 2180
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Abstract
We offer a macroeconomic assessment of China’s Reform Period, highlighting several neglected channels underlining its great expansion. Estimating the supply side of the post-Reform economy reveals the relatively high (above unity) value of the elasticity of factor substitution and the time-varying pattern of factor-saving technical change. The latter we relate to trade, human capital and reallocation factors. We then demonstrate how, in addition to factor accumulation and technical progress, the above-unity elasticity of substitution can be a source of growth (the ‘de La Grandville hypothesis’). We then draw upon our estimated framework to rationalize China’s high and rising savings ratio as well as the dynamic nature of its convergence path.
JEL Code
D24 : Microeconomics→Production and Organizations→Production, Cost, Capital, Capital, Total Factor, and Multifactor Productivity, Capacity
E13 : Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics→General Aggregative Models→Neoclassical
O11 : Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth→Economic Development→Macroeconomic Analyses of Economic Development
13 March 2017
WORKING PAPER SERIES - No. 2034
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Abstract
We present estimates of finance-adjusted output gaps which incorporate the information on the domestic and global credit cycles for a sample of emerging market economies (EMEs). Following recent BIS research, we use a state-space representation of an HP filter augmented with a measure of the credit gap to estimate finance-adjusted output gaps. We measure the domestic and global credit gaps as the deviation of private-sector real credit growth and net capital flows to EMEs from long-term trends, using the asymmetric Band-Pass filter. Overall, we find that financial cycle information is associated with cyclical movements in output. In the current circumstances, the estimates suggest that if financing and credit conditions were to tighten, it would be associated with a moderation in activity in some EMEs.
JEL Code
C32 : Mathematical and Quantitative Methods→Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models, Multiple Variables→Time-Series Models, Dynamic Quantile Regressions, Dynamic Treatment Effect Models, Diffusion Processes
E32 : Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics→Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles→Business Fluctuations, Cycles
F32 : International Economics→International Finance→Current Account Adjustment, Short-Term Capital Movements