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Alejandro Zamora-Pérez

Banknotes

Division

Currency Management

Current Position

Banknote Issuance Specialist

Fields of interest

Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics,Financial Economics,Other Special Topics

Email

alejandro.zamora@ecb.europa.eu

Other current responsibilities
2020-

Chairman, Eurosystem Research Network on Cash (EURECA)

Education
2018-2019

MSc in Economics, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid (UC3M), Madrid, Spain

2007-2013

BA in Economics, Finance and Management, ICADE Comillas, Madrid, Spain

2012-2012

MSc in Economics and Econometrics (Semester Stay), Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden

2007-2012

LLB in Law, ICADE Comillas, Madrid, Spain

Professional experience
2022-

Specialist - Currency Management Division, European Central Bank

2019-2022

Expert - Currency Management Division, European Central Bank

2016-2019

Expert - Currency Division, Directorate General Financial Conduct and Banknotes, Banco de España

2014-2015

Analyst - BBVA Corporate & Investment Banking

18 March 2024
ECONOMIC BULLETIN - ARTICLE
Economic Bulletin Issue 2, 2024
Details
Abstract
This article uses comprehensive ECB survey data to examine the narrative that a general shift towards digital payments is generating a sharp divide in payments behaviours, creating a binary world of digital “haves” and analogue “have-nots”. Our analysis challenges this narrative, revealing a more complex reality of payment behaviours at the point of sale. We focus on lack of ownership of the primary tools enabling digital payments in the euro area: debit or credit cards and payment accounts. In particular, we examine the group of people who lack at least one of these tools (either a debit or credit card or a payment account), assessing their cash payment patterns and their socio-demographic profiles against the rest of the population. The findings establish that cash remains a significant part of the payments ecosystem, even among people with both cards and accounts. Additionally, we show that the group of people without either cards or accounts has a diverse demographic profile. The analysis also assesses the reasons behind not having at least one of these two tools to enable digital payments. We show that perceived physical banking presence (defined as considering it easy to reach a bank branch or an ATM) is of limited importance, suggesting that personal choice or other demand-side factors may be of greater importance. We also show the relevance of payment habits through the persistence of cash habits even after the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. The results are in line with the cash and retail payments strategies of the Eurosystem, which emphasise the need for a balanced approach that accommodates both the enduring role of cash and digital innovation.
JEL Code
E41 : Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics→Money and Interest Rates→Demand for Money
O33 : Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth→Technological Change, Research and Development, Intellectual Property Rights→Technological Change: Choices and Consequences, Diffusion Processes
E42 : Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics→Money and Interest Rates→Monetary Systems, Standards, Regimes, Government and the Monetary System, Payment Systems
E58 : Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics→Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit→Central Banks and Their Policies
O52 : Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth→Economywide Country Studies→Europe
21 June 2023
THE INTERNATIONAL ROLE OF THE EURO - BOX
The international role of the euro 2023
Details
JEL Code
:
11 October 2022
OCCASIONAL PAPER SERIES - No. 307
Details
Abstract
Central banks have been discussing the introduction of a retail central bank digital currency (rCBDC) for some time. However, potential obstacles to its adoption by consumers and retailers remain largely unexplored in the academic and policy literature. This paper surveys the key elements involved in the adoption of any new means of payment and discusses failed and ongoing initiatives with public digital money. It concludes that ensuring the desired level of adoption of rCBDCs may impose significant constraints on central bank design choices and policy goals. In fact, in some settings, central banks may find themselves on the horns of a dilemma in seeking to balance the needs to (i) preserve the central bank’s hierarchy of policy goals, (ii) increase the chances of adoption and use of rCBDCs by consumers and retailers, and (iii) avoid any adverse economic effects.
JEL Code
E42 : Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics→Money and Interest Rates→Monetary Systems, Standards, Regimes, Government and the Monetary System, Payment Systems
E58 : Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics→Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit→Central Banks and Their Policies
D12 : Microeconomics→Household Behavior and Family Economics→Consumer Economics: Empirical Analysis
Network
Eurosystem Research Network on Cash (EURECA)
2 August 2022
ECONOMIC BULLETIN - ARTICLE
Economic Bulletin Issue 5, 2022
Details
Abstract
In the digital age, innovation in retail payments is influencing payment choice and transforming the payment landscape. However, survey evidence indicates that for the largest share of transactions at the point of sale euro area citizens choose to pay in cash, and some of them have no other payment option. It is a responsibility of central banks to ensure adequate access to cash to guarantee consumers’ freedom to choose their method of payment and to prevent financial exclusion. This article describes the situation as regards access to cash in the euro area and the ongoing work by the Eurosystem to ensure that access to cash remains adequate.
JEL Code
E58 : Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics→Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit→Central Banks and Their Policies
E41 : Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics→Money and Interest Rates→Demand for Money
R12 : Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics→General Regional Economics→Size and Spatial Distributions of Regional Economic Activity
G21 : Financial Economics→Financial Institutions and Services→Banks, Depository Institutions, Micro Finance Institutions, Mortgages
Network
Eurosystem Research Network on Cash (EURECA)
29 July 2021
OCCASIONAL PAPER SERIES - No. 259
Details
Abstract
In the light of fears that the SARS-CoV-2 virus might be transmitted via cash – fears that were stoked by statements in the media and from public authorities – this paper aims to address the following issues: (1) to provide a descriptive account of the change in the circulation of euro banknotes and the use of cash in transactions during the pandemic; and (2) to assess the survivability of the virus on cash and the potential transmission risks. The pandemic has caused a significant increase in demand for cash as a store of value but a decrease in the use of cash in transactions. Although citizens reported using cash less in transactions partly out of fear of infection, research confirms that the risk of the virus being transmitted by banknotes and coins is very low. This supports the findings from the scientific community concluding that SARS-CoV-2 mainly spreads via respiratory fluids and airborne transmission, and that surfaces play a very minor role.
JEL Code
I10 : Health, Education, and Welfare→Health→General
I12 : Health, Education, and Welfare→Health→Health Production
E41 : Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics→Money and Interest Rates→Demand for Money
E58 : Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics→Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit→Central Banks and Their Policies
Network
Eurosystem Research Network on Cash (EURECA)
2 June 2021
THE INTERNATIONAL ROLE OF THE EURO - BOX
The international role of the euro 2021
22 March 2021
ECONOMIC BULLETIN - ARTICLE
Economic Bulletin Issue 2, 2021
Details
Abstract
What explains the strong growth of euro banknote demand, given that the transactional use of banknotes seems to have decreased? Key to explaining this phenomenon – referred to as the “paradox of banknotes” – is acknowledgement of the importance of all three components of banknote demand: euro area transactional demand, euro area store-of-value demand and foreign demand. This article explains these components and estimates their relative size. It also addresses COVID-19-related banknote developments during 2020, highlighting the importance of cash during crises.
JEL Code
E41 : Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics→Money and Interest Rates→Demand for Money
E51 : Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics→Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit→Money Supply, Credit, Money Multipliers
E58 : Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics→Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit→Central Banks and Their Policies
Network
Eurosystem Research Network on Cash (EURECA)
13 January 2021
OCCASIONAL PAPER SERIES - No. 253
Details
Abstract
In order to understand why there is a continuous increase in euro banknote circulation even though the use of cash for transactions is decreasing in the euro area – a phenomenon known as the paradox of banknotes – the members of the Overseas workstream of the Eurosystem Research Network on Cash (EURECA) have conducted a study on the foreign demand for euro banknotes. The results of this study are based on desk research using data collected in the Eurosystem and from other organisations, and using both proven and innovative techniques.
JEL Code
E41 : Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics→Money and Interest Rates→Demand for Money
E47 : Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics→Money and Interest Rates→Forecasting and Simulation: Models and Applications
E49 : Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics→Money and Interest Rates→Other
E59 : Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics→Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit→Other
F24 : International Economics→International Factor Movements and International Business→Remittances
Network
Eurosystem Research Network on Cash (EURECA)