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Arnaud Mehl

International & European Relations

Division

International Policy Analysis

Current Position

Adviser

Fields of interest

International Economics

Email

arnaud.mehl@ecb.int

Other current responsibilities
2020-

Research fellow, Centre for Economic Policy Research

2018-

Associate Editor, Journal of International Money and Finance

2015-

Editorial Board Member, ECB Working Paper Series

2013-

Research Associate, Globalization and Monetary Policy Institute, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas

Education
1997-2000

PhD in Economics, Université Paris-IX Dauphine, Paris, France

1998-1999

Visiting Student, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK

1993-1996

MA in Political Science, Sciences-Po, Paris, France

1992-1995

MA in Business Studies, ESCP Europe, Paris, France

Professional experience
2019-

Adviser - International Policy Analysis Division, Directorate General International and European Relations, European Central Bank

2008-2018

Principal Economist - International Policy Analysis Division, Directorate General International and European Relations, European Central Bank

2004-2007

Senior Economist - Multilateral, Asia-Pacific and Western Hemisphere Division, Directorate General International and European Relations, European Central Bank

2001-2003

Economist - EU Neighbouring Regions Division, Directorate General International and European Relations, European Central Bank

2001

Quantitative Analyst - Edmond de Rothschild Group, Paris, France

1998-1999

Junior Economist - French Treasury Agency, Vienna, Austria

Awards
2021

Economics in central banking, Central Banking Awards

27 July 2021
WORKING PAPER SERIES - No. 2574
Details
Abstract
The US dollar plays a dominant role in the invoicing of international trade, albeit not an exclusive one as more than half of global trade is invoiced in other currencies. Of particular interest are the euro, with a large role, and the renminbi, with a rising role. These two currencies are well suited to contrast the roles of economic fundamentals and policies, as European policy makers have taken a neutral stance in contrast to the promotion of the international role of the renminbi by the Chinese authorities. We assess the drivers of invoicing using the most recent and comprehensive data set for 115 countries over 1999-2019. We find that standard mechanisms that foster use of a large economy's currency predicted by theory – i.e. strategic complementarities in price setting and integration in cross-border value chains – underpin use of the dollar and the euro for trade with the United States and the euro area. These mechanisms also support the role of the dollar, but not the euro, in trade between non-US and non-euro area countries, making the dollar the globally dominant invoicing currency. Fundamentals and policies have played a contrasted role for the use of the renminbi. We find that China's integration into global trade has further strengthened the dominant status of the dollar at the expense of the euro. At the same time, the establishment of currency swap lines by the People's Bank of China has been associated with increases in renminbi invoicing, with an adverse effect on dollar use that is larger than for the euro.
JEL Code
F14 : International Economics→Trade→Empirical Studies of Trade
F31 : International Economics→International Finance→Foreign Exchange
F44 : International Economics→Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance→International Business Cycles
19 November 2020
WORKING PAPER SERIES - No. 2488
Details
Abstract
We examine the open-economy implications of the introduction of a central bank digital currency (CBDC).We add a CBDC to the menu of monetary assets available in a standard two-country DSGE model with financial frictions and consider a broad set of alternative technical features in CBDC design. We analyse the international transmission of standard monetary policy and technology shocks in the presence and absence of a CDBC and the implications for optimal monetary policy and welfare. The presence of a CBDC amplifies the international spillovers of shocks to a significant extent, thereby increasing international linkages. But the magnitude of these effects depends crucially on CBDC design and can be significantly dampened if the CBDC possesses specific technical features. We also show that domestic issuance of a CBDC increases asymmetries in the international monetary system by reducing monetary policy autonomy in foreign economies.
JEL Code
E50 : Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics→Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit→General
F30 : International Economics→International Finance→General
20 October 2020
RESEARCH BULLETIN - No. 76
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Abstract
What does quantitative easing (QE) really mean for the exchange rate? This article explains how the relevant effects can be estimated using a statistical methodology derived from theory. The results suggest that QE has large and persistent effects on the USD/EUR exchange rate, mainly through shifts in exchange rate risk and short-term interest rates between the two currencies. Changes in expectations about the future monetary policy stance, reflecting the “signalling channel” of monetary policy, also affect how the USD/EUR exchange rate responds to QE.
JEL Code
F41 : International Economics→Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance→Open Economy Macroeconomics
14 August 2020
WORKING PAPER SERIES - No. 2456
Details
Abstract
This paper presents the most comprehensive and up-to-date panel data set of invoicing currencies in global trade. It provides data on the shares of exports and imports invoiced in US dollars, euros, and other currencies for more than 100 countries since 1990. The evidence from these data confirms findings from earlier research regarding the globally dominant role of the US dollar in invoicing – despite the comparatively smaller role of the US in global trade – and the overall stability of invoicing currency patterns. But the evidence also points to several novel stylised facts. First, both the US dollar and the euro have been increasingly used for invoicing even as the share of global trade accounted for by the US and the euro area has declined. Second, the euro is used as a vehicle currency in parts of Africa, and some European countries have seen significant shifts toward euro invoicing. And third, as suggested by the dominant currency paradigm, countries invoicing more in US dollars (euros) tend to experience greater US dollar (euro) exchange rate pass-through to their import prices; also, their trade volumes are more sensitive to fluctuations in these exchange rates.
JEL Code
F14 : International Economics→Trade→Empirical Studies of Trade
F31 : International Economics→International Finance→Foreign Exchange
F44 : International Economics→Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance→International Business Cycles
30 July 2019
WORKING PAPER SERIES - No. 2300
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Abstract
Focusing on the foreign exchange reaction to macroeconomic announcements, we show that fast trading is positively and significantly correlated with the entropy of the distribution of quoted prices in reaction to news: a larger share of fast trading increases the degree of diversity of quotes in the order book, for given liquidity, order book depth and size of order flows. Exploiting the WM Reuters’ reform of the fixing methodology in February 2015 as a natural experiment, we provide evidence that fast trading raises entropy, rather than reacting to it. While more entropy in quoted prices means noisier information and arguably complicates price discovery from an individual trader’s perspective, we show that, in the aggregate, more entropy actually brings traded prices closer to the random walk hypothesis, and improves indicators of market efficiency and quality of trade execution. We estimate that a 10 percent increase in entropy reduces the negative impact of macro news by over 60% for effective spreads, against over 40% for realized spreads and price impacts. Our findings suggest that the main mechanism by which fast trading may have desirable effects on market performance specifically hinges on enhanced heterogeneity in trading patterns, best captured by entropy.
JEL Code
F31 : International Economics→International Finance→Foreign Exchange
G14 : Financial Economics→General Financial Markets→Information and Market Efficiency, Event Studies, Insider Trading
G15 : Financial Economics→General Financial Markets→International Financial Markets
25 March 2019
WORKING PAPER SERIES - No. 2252
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Abstract
Does distance matter for the volatility of international real and financial transactions? We show that it does, in addition to its well-established relevance for the level of trade. A simple model of trade with endogenous markups shows that demand shocks have a larger impact on trade between more distant countries. We test this implication in two steps, relying on a broad range of real and financial transactions measures, as well as several different metrics of distance (physical, linguistic, and internet). We first show that during the Great Trade Collapse of 2007-09 international transactions fell more between countries that are more distant along the various metrics, and find that the different distance measures magnify each other’s respective impacts. We then focus on a longer panel analysis of trade in goods and show that trade is more volatile between more distant countries, with again a magnification pattern across metrics of distance.
JEL Code
F10 : International Economics→Trade→General
F30 : International Economics→International Finance→General
22 February 2019
WORKING PAPER SERIES - No. 2246
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Abstract
We analyze the role of economic and security considerations in bilateral trade agreements. We use the pre-World War I period to test whether trade agreements are governed by pecuniary factors, such as distance and other frictions measured by gravity covariates, or by geopolitical factors. While there is support for both hypotheses, we find that defense pacts boost the probability of trade agreements by as much as 20 percentage points. Our estimates imply that were the U.S. to alienate its geopolitical allies, the likelihood and benefits of successful bilateral agreements would fall significantly. Trade creation from an agreement between the U.S. and E.U. countries would decline by about 0.6 percent of total U.S. exports.
JEL Code
F13 : International Economics→Trade→Trade Policy, International Trade Organizations
N20 : Economic History→Financial Markets and Institutions→General, International, or Comparative
14 November 2018
WORKING PAPER SERIES - No. 2197
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Abstract
We estimate the effects of quantitative easing (QE) measures by the ECB and the Federal Reserve on the US dollar-euro exchange rate at frequencies and horizons relevant for policymakers. To do so, we derive a theoretically-consistent local projection regression equation from the standard asset pricing formulation of exchange rate determination. We then proxy unobserved QE shocks by future changes in the relative size of central banks’ balance sheets, which we instrument with QE announcements in two-stage least squares regressions in order to account for their endogeneity. We find that QE measures have large and persistent effects on the exchange rate. For example, our estimates imply that the ECB’s APP program which raised the ECB’s balance sheet relative to that of the Federal Reserve by 35 percentage points between September 2014 and the end of 2016 depreciated the euro vis-à-vis the US dollar by a 12%. Regarding transmission channels, we find that a relative QE shock that expands the ECB’s balance sheet relative to that of the Federal Reserve depreciates the US dollar-euro exchange rate by reducing euro-dollar short-term money market rate differentials, by widening the cross-currency basis and by eliciting adjustments in currency risk premia. Changes in the expectations about the future monetary policy stance, reflecting the “signalling” channel of QE, also contribute to the exchange rate response to QE shocks.
JEL Code
E5 : Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics→Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit
F3 : International Economics→International Finance
Network
Research Task Force (RTF)
30 March 2016
WORKING PAPER SERIES - No. 1889
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Abstract
We analyze the impact of technology on production and trade in services, focusing on the foreign exchange market. We identify exogenous technological changes by the connection of countries to submarine fiber-optic cables used for electronic trading, but which were not laid for purposes related to the foreign exchange market. We estimate the impact of cable connections on the share of offshore foreign exchange transactions. Cable connections between local markets and matching servers in the major financial centers lower the fixed costs of trading currencies and increase the share of currency trades occurring onshore. At the same time, however, they attenuate the effect of standard spatial frictions such as distance, local market liquidity, and restrictive regulations that otherwise prevent transactions from moving to the major financial centers. Our estimates suggest that the second effect dominates. Technology dampens the impact of spatial frictions by up to 80 percent and increases, in net terms, the share of offshore trading by 21 percentage points. Technology also has economically important implications for the distribution of foreign exchange transactions across financial centers, boosting the share in global turnover of London, the world
JEL Code
F30 : International Economics→International Finance→General
13 August 2014
WORKING PAPER SERIES - No. 1715
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Abstract
We investigate whether the role of national currencies as international reserves was fundamentally altered by the shift from fixed to flexible exchange rates (what we call the
JEL Code
F30 : International Economics→International Finance→General
N20 : Economic History→Financial Markets and Institutions→General, International, or Comparative
2 July 2014
WORKING PAPER SERIES - No. 1686
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Abstract
This paper reconstructs the forgotten history of mutual assistance among Reserve Banks in the early years of the Federal Reserve System. We use data on accommodation operations by the 12 Reserve Banks between 1913 and 1960 which enabled them to mutualise their gold reserves in emergency situations. Gold reserve sharing was especially important in response to liquidity crises and bank runs. Cooperation among reserve banks was essential for the cohesion and stability of the US monetary union. But fortunes could change quickly, with emergency recipients of gold turning into providers. Because regional imbalances did not grow endlessly, instead narrowing when region-specific liquidity shocks subsided, mutual assistance created only limited tensions. These findings speak to the current debate over TARGET2 balances in Europe.
JEL Code
F30 : International Economics→International Finance→General
N20 : Economic History→Financial Markets and Institutions→General, International, or Comparative
12 March 2014
WORKING PAPER SERIES - No. 1651
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Abstract
Conventional wisdom has it that network effects are strong in markets for homogeneous goods, leading to the dominance of one settlement currency in such markets. The alleged dominance of the dollar in global oil markets is said to epitomize this phenomenon. We question this presumption with evidence for earlier periods showing that several national currencies have simultaneously played substantial roles in global oil markets. European oil import payments before and after World War II were split between the dollar and non-dollar currencies, mainly sterling. Differences in use of the dollar across countries were associated with trade linkages with the United States and the size of the importing country. That several national currencies could simultaneously play a role in international oil settlements suggests that a shift from the current dollar-based system toward a multi-polar system in the period ahead is not impossible.
JEL Code
F30 : International Economics→International Finance→General
N20 : Economic History→Financial Markets and Institutions→General, International, or Comparative
14 May 2013
WORKING PAPER SERIES - No. 1548
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Abstract
I estimate the transmission of large global volatility shocks in international equity markets from the earlier (pre-1914) to the modern era of globalisation. To that end, I identify 43 such shocks over the period 1885-2011, defined as significant increases in unanticipated volatility in US equity markets, which I relate to well-known historical events. My estimates suggest that the response of global equity markets to these shocks in a panel of 16 countries is both statistically significant and large economically. On average, global equity market valuations correct by about 20% in the month when a shock occurs. There is substantial heterogeneity in responses both across countries and time, however, which can be partly explained by differences in global trade integration. I find no evidence that other potential theoretical determinants, such as output composition, country fundamentals or global policy responses matter, by contrast. These results shed light on a neglected aspect of globalisation, which creates opportunities but also heightens the exposure of economies to acute surges in global uncertainty and risk aversion.
JEL Code
F30 : International Economics→International Finance→General
F31 : International Economics→International Finance→Foreign Exchange
N20 : Economic History→Financial Markets and Institutions→General, International, or Comparative
17 September 2012
WORKING PAPER SERIES - No. 1466
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Abstract
We analyze persistence in patterns of bilateral financial investment using data on US investors’ holdings of foreign bonds. We document a “history effect” in which the pattern of holdings seven decades ago continues to influence holdings today. 10 to 15% of the cross-country variation in US investors’ foreign bond holdings is explained by holdings 70 years ago, plausibly reflecting fixed costs of market entry and exit. This effect is twice as large for bonds denominated in currencies other than the dollar, suggesting the existence of even higher fixed costs of initiating US foreign investment in currencies other than the dollar. Our findings point to history and path dependence as key sources of financial market segmentation.
JEL Code
F30 : International Economics→International Finance→General
N20 : Economic History→Financial Markets and Institutions→General, International, or Comparative
7 May 2012
WORKING PAPER SERIES - No. 1433
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Abstract
This paper offers new evidence on the emergence of the dollar as the leading international currency, focusing on its role as currency of denomination in global bond markets. We show that the dollar overtook sterling much earlier than commonly supposed, as early as in 1929. Financial market development appears to have been the main factor helping the dollar to surmount sterling
JEL Code
F30 : International Economics→International Finance→General
N20 : Economic History→Financial Markets and Institutions→General, International, or Comparative
28 October 2011
WORKING PAPER SERIES - No. 1392
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Abstract
This paper assesses whether the international monetary system is already tripolar and centred around the US dollar, the euro and the Chinese renminbi (RMB). It focuses on what we call China
JEL Code
F30 : International Economics→International Finance→General
F31 : International Economics→International Finance→Foreign Exchange
F33 : International Economics→International Finance→International Monetary Arrangements and Institutions
N20 : Economic History→Financial Markets and Institutions→General, International, or Comparative
12 September 2011
WORKING PAPER SERIES - No. 1381
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Abstract
Using the 2007-2009 financial crisis as a laboratory, we analyze the transmission of crises to country-industry equity portfolios in 55 countries. We use an asset pricing framework with global and local factors to predict crisis returns, defining unexplained increases in factor loadings as indicative of contagion. We find evidence of systematic contagion from US markets and from the global financial sector, but the effects are very small. By contrast, there has been systematic and substantial contagion from domestic equity markets to individual domestic equity portfolios, with its severity inversely related to the quality of countries' economic fundamentals and policies. Consequently, we reject the globalization hypothesis that links the transmission of the crisis to the extent of global exposure. Instead, we confirm the old
JEL Code
F3 : International Economics→International Finance
G14 : Financial Economics→General Financial Markets→Information and Market Efficiency, Event Studies, Insider Trading
G15 : Financial Economics→General Financial Markets→International Financial Markets
Network
Macroprudential Research Network
9 February 2011
WORKING PAPER SERIES - No. 1292
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Abstract
This paper provides evidence on whether the creation of the euro has changed the way global turbulences affect euro area and other economies. Specifically, it considers the impact of global shocks on the competitiveness of individual euro area countries and assesses whether their responses to such shocks have converged, as well as to what pattern. Technically, the paper applies a newly developed methodology based on infinite VAR theory featuring a dominant unit to a large set of over 60 countries' real effective exchange rates, including those of the individual euro area economies, and compares impulse response functions to the estimated systems before and after EMU with respect to three types of shocks: a global US dollar shock, generalised impulse response function shocks and a global shock to risk aversion. Our results show that the way euro area countries' real effective exchange rates adjust to these shocks has converged indeed, albeit to a pattern that depends crucially on the nature of the shock. This result is noteworthy given the apparent divergence in competitiveness indicators of these countries in the first ten years of EMU, which suggests that this diverging pattern is unlikely to be due to global external shocks with asymmetric effects but rather to other factors, such as country-specific domestic shocks.
JEL Code
C21 : Mathematical and Quantitative Methods→Single Equation Models, Single Variables→Cross-Sectional Models, Spatial Models, Treatment Effect Models, Quantile Regressions
C23 : Mathematical and Quantitative Methods→Single Equation Models, Single Variables→Panel Data Models, Spatio-temporal Models
2 December 2008
WORKING PAPER SERIES - No. 973
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Abstract
This paper analyses the impact of the shift away from a US dollar focus of systemically important emerging market economies (EMEs) on configurations between the US dollar, the euro and the yen. Given the difficulty that fixed or managed US dollar exchange rate regimes remain pervasive and reserve compositions mostly kept secret, the identification strategy of the paper is to analyse the market impact on major currency pairs of official statements made by EME policy-makers about their exchange rate regime and reserve composition. Developing a novel database for 18 EMEs, we find that such statements not only have a statistically but also an economically significant impact on the euro, and to a lesser extent the yen against the US dollar. The findings suggest that communication hinting at a weakening of EMEs’ US dollar focus contributed substantially to the appreciation of the euro against the US dollar in recent years. Interestingly, EME policy-makers appear to have become more cautious in their communication more recently. Overall, the results underscore the growing systemic importance of EMEs for global exchange rate configurations.
JEL Code
E58 : Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics→Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit→Central Banks and Their Policies
F30 : International Economics→International Finance→General
F31 : International Economics→International Finance→Foreign Exchange
F36 : International Economics→International Finance→Financial Aspects of Economic Integration
G15 : Financial Economics→General Financial Markets→International Financial Markets
30 January 2008
OCCASIONAL PAPER SERIES - No. 80
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Abstract
This paper analyses the integration of China and India into the global economy. To this end, it presents estimates from a gravity model to gauge the overall degree of their trade intensity and the depth of their bilateral trade linkages, as well as selected measures of revealed comparative advantage and economic distance. The paper also reviews the key characteristics of the two countries' domestic economies that are relevant to their global integration and analyses their financial linkages with the rest of the world. Four main findings stand out. First, considering trade in goods, the overall degree of China's trade intensity is higher than fundamentals would suggest, whereas the converse is true for India. Second, Chinese goods exports seem to compete increasingly with those of mature economies, while Indian exports remain more low-tech. Third, China's exports of services tend to complement its exports of goods, while India's exports are growing only in deregulated sectors, such as IT-related services. Last, China's and India's roles in the global financial system are still relatively limited and often complementary to their roles in global trade.
JEL Code
E44 : Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics→Money and Interest Rates→Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy
F3 : International Economics→International Finance
C5 : Mathematical and Quantitative Methods→Econometric Modeling
31 August 2007
WORKING PAPER SERIES - No. 801
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Abstract
This paper tests for uncovered interest parity (UIP) at distant horizons for the US and its main trading partners, including both mature and emerging market economies, also exploring the existence of nonlinearities. At long and medium horizons, it finds support in favour of the standard, linear, specification of UIP for dollar rates vis-à-vis major floating currencies, but not vis-à-vis emerging market currencies. Moreover, the paper finds evidence that, not only yield differentials widen, but that US bond yields do react in anticipation of exchange rate movements, notably when these take place vis-à-vis major floating currencies. Last, the paper detects signs of nonlinearities in UIP at the mediumterm horizon for dollar rates vis-à-vis some of the major floating currencies, albeit surrounded by some uncertainty.
JEL Code
E43 : Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics→Money and Interest Rates→Interest Rates: Determination, Term Structure, and Effects
F31 : International Economics→International Finance→Foreign Exchange
F41 : International Economics→Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance→Open Economy Macroeconomics
17 November 2006
WORKING PAPER SERIES - No. 691
Details
Abstract
This paper investigates the extent to which the slope of the yield curve in emerging economies predicts domestic inflation and growth. It also examines international financial linkages and how the US and the euro area yield curves help to predict. It finds that the domestic yield curve in emerging economies has in-sample information content even after controlling for inflation and growth persistence, at both short and long forecast horizons, and that it often improves out-of-sample forecasting performance. Differences across countries are seemingly linked to market liquidity. The paper further finds that the US and the euro area yield curves also have in- and out-of-sample information content for future inflation and growth in emerging economies. In particular, for emerging economies that have an exchange rate peg to the US dollar, the US yield curve is often found to be a better predictor than these economies’ own domestic curve and to causally explain their movements. This suggests that monetary policy changes and short-term interest rate pass-through are key drivers of international financial linkages through movements from the low end of the yield curve.
JEL Code
E44 : Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics→Money and Interest Rates→Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy
F3 : International Economics→International Finance
C5 : Mathematical and Quantitative Methods→Econometric Modeling
14 December 2005
WORKING PAPER SERIES - No. 560
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Abstract
This paper explains why domestic debt composition in emerging economies is risky. It carries out an analysis of the determinants of
JEL Code
F34 : International Economics→International Finance→International Lending and Debt Problems
F41 : International Economics→Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance→Open Economy Macroeconomics
G15 : Financial Economics→General Financial Markets→International Financial Markets
30 July 2004
OCCASIONAL PAPER SERIES - No. 18
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Abstract
This paper analyses the main features of the market for euro-denominated bonds issued by non-euro area residents on the basis of a new database. It shows that large private corporations from mature economies have contributed significantly to the internationalisation of the euro since 1999, more than sovereigns in transition and emerging economies, whose part was initially expected to be stronger. It confirms that the euro
29 February 2004
OCCASIONAL PAPER SERIES - No. 10
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Abstract
This paper reviews the strategies announced by the ten countries joining the European Union in May 2004 with regard to their intentions for participation in ERM II and the adoption of the euro. The paper examines the economic rationale of the monetary integration strategies declared by most acceding countries with a view to identifying also their potential risks. It does so by making use of several different approaches, including a short review of nominal convergence and a more extensive discussion from an optimum currency area perspective. An important part of the analysis is devoted to the implications of real convergence – i.e. catching-up growth in income and adjustment of the real economic structures towards those prevailing in the euro area – on the patterns of economic dynamics in acceding countries. Other aspects covered are the risks for external competitiveness in the convergence process and the appropriate pace of fiscal consolidation.
28 December 2002
OCCASIONAL PAPER SERIES - No. 7
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Abstract
This paper reviews the economic, monetary and financial relations between the EU and the euro area and a set of countries in a broad set of neighbouring regions. The 80 or so countries are mostly classified as transition, emerging or developing economies and belong to four main regions: the Western Balkans; the European part of the Commonwealth of Independent States; the Middle East and Northern Africa; and Sub-Saharan Africa. In many respects, these countries are diverse; however, some common features can also be identified. One of these common features is the fact that the euro area is their largest trading partner and the largest originator of international bank credit, foreign direct investment and official development assistance; meanwhile, from a euro area perspective, while these countries account for a somewhat smaller share of external trade, they are important as providers of energy, other raw materials and agricultural products.
2021
The World Economy
  • Eichengreen, B., Mehl, A. and Chitu, L.
2021
Journal of Monetary Economics
  • Dedola, L., Georgiadis, G., Gräb, J. and Mehl, A.
2019
Economic Policy
  • Eichengreen, B., Mehl, A. and Chitu, L.
2019
Journal of International Money and Finance
  • Bekaert, G. and Mehl, A.
2016
Journal of International Economics
  • Georgiadis, G. and Mehl, A.
2016
IMF Economic Review
  • Eichengreen, B., Chitu, L. and Mehl, A.
2016
Canadian Journal of Economics
  • Eichengreen, B., Chiţu, L. and Mehl, A.
2015
Journal of Economic History
  • Eichengreen, B., Mehl, A., Chiţu, L. and Richardson, G.
2014
Journal of Finance
  • Bekaert, G., Ehrmann, M., Fratzscher, M. and Mehl, A.
2014
Economic Journal
  • Fratzscher, M. and Mehl. A.
2014
Journal of Development Economics
  • Chiţu, L., Eichengreen, B. and Mehl, A.
2014
Journal of International Money and Finance
  • Chiţu, L., Eichengreen, B. and Mehl, A.
2013
B.E. Journal of Macroeconomics
  • Bussière, M., Chudik, A. and Mehl, A.
2011
IMF Economic Review
  • Fratzscher, M., Mehl, A. and Vansteenkiste, I.
2010
Journal of International Money and Finance
  • Reynaud, J. and Mehl, A.
2009
Journal of Comparative Economics
  • Fratzscher, M. and Mehl, A.
2009
Review of International Economics
  • Cappiello, L. and Mehl, A.
2009
Open Economies Review
  • Mehl, A.
2000
Japan and the World Economy
  • Mehl, A.
2017
Princeton University Press
  • Eichengreen, B., Mehl, A. and Chitu, L.
2006
Financial development, integration and stability – Evidence from Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe
  • Mehl, A., Vespro, C. and Winkler, A.
2005
EU accession – Financial sector opportunities and challenges for Southeast Europe
Financial stability in Southeast Europe - Basel II and the challenges ahead
  • Fehlker C., Mehl, A. and Winkler, A.
2004
The development of the financial sector in Southeast Europe: innovative approaches in a volatile environment
The financial sector and economic development: evidence from Southeast Europe
  • Mehl, A.and Winkler, A.
2021
VoxEU article
  • Georgiadis, G., Le Mezo, H., Mehl, A. and Tille, C.
2020
VoxEU article
  • Dedola, L., Georgiadis, G., Gräb, J. and Mehl, A.
2020
VoxEU article
  • Ferrari, M., Mehl, A. and Stracca, L.
2020
VoxEU article
  • Boz, E., Casas, C., Georgiadis, G., Gopinath, G., Le Mezo, H., Mehl, A. and Nguyen, T.
2020
CEPR Discussion Paper
  • Ferrari, M., Mehl, A. and Stracca, L.
2020
VoxEU article
  • Mehl, A., Schmitz, M. and Tille, C.
2019
VoxEU article
  • Eichengreen, B., Mehl, A. and Chitu, L.
2018
VoxEU article
  • Eichengreen, B., Mehl, A. and Chitu, L.
2017
IMF Working Paper
  • Eichengreen, B., Lafarguette, R. and Mehl, A.
2017
IMFBlog
  • Eichengreen, B., Lafarguette, R. and Mehl, A.
2016
NBER Working Paper
  • Eichengreen, B., Lafarguette, R. and Mehl, A.
2016
VoxEU article
  • Eichengreen, B., Lafarguette, R. and Mehl, A.
2016
VoxEU article
  • Georgiadis, G. and Mehl, A.
2016
Liberty Street Economics, Federal Reserve Bank of New York
  • De Paoli, B., Dedola, L., Goldberg, L. Mehl, A., Rogers, J., and Stracca L.
2014
VoxEU article
  • Eichengreen, B., Mehl, A. and Chitu, L.
2014
VoxEU article
  • Eichengreen, B., Mehl, A. and Chitu, L.
2013
VoxEU article
  • Beck, R. and Mehl, A.
2012
VoxEU article
  • Eichengreen, B., Mehl, A. and Chitu, L.
2012
VoxEU article
  • Eichengreen, B., Mehl, A. and Chitu, L.
2011
VoxEU article
  • Bekaert, G., Ehrmann, M., Fratzscher, M. and Mehl, A.
2011
VoxEU article
  • Fratzscher, M. and Mehl, A.