Igor Custodio Joao
- 13 February 2023
- WORKING PAPER SERIES - No. 2780Details
- We introduce a new dynamic clustering method for multivariate panel data char-acterized by time-variation in cluster locations and shapes, cluster compositions, and, possibly, the number of clusters. To avoid overly frequent cluster switching (flickering), we extend standard cross-sectional clustering techniques with a penalty that shrinks observations towards the current center of their previous cluster as-signment. This links consecutive cross-sections in the panel together, substantially reduces flickering, and enhances the economic interpretability of the outcome. We choose the shrinkage parameter in a data-driven way and study its misclassification properties theoretically as well as in several challenging simulation settings. The method is illustrated using a multivariate panel of four accounting ratios for 28 large European insurance firms between 2010 and 2020.
- JEL Code
- C33 : Mathematical and Quantitative Methods→Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models, Multiple Variables→Panel Data Models, Spatio-temporal Models
C38 : Mathematical and Quantitative Methods→Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models, Multiple Variables→Classification Methods, Cluster Analysis, Principal Components, Factor Models
G22 : Financial Economics→Financial Institutions and Services→Insurance, Insurance Companies, Actuarial Studies
- 29 July 2021
- WORKING PAPER SERIES - No. 2577Details
- We propose a dynamic clustering model for uncovering latent time-varying group structures in multivariate panel data. The model is dynamic in three ways. First, the cluster location and scale matrices are time-varying to track gradual changes in cluster characteristics over time. Second, all units can transition between clusters based on a Hidden Markov model (HMM). Finally, the HMM’s transition matrix can depend on lagged time-varying cluster distances as well as economic covariates. Monte Carlo experiments suggest that the units can be classified reliably in a variety of challenging settings. Incorporating dynamics in the cluster composition proves empirically important in an a study of 299 European banks between 2008Q1 and 2018Q2. We find that approximately 3% of banks transition per quarter on average. Transition probabilities are in part explained by differences in bank profitability, suggesting that low interest rates can lead to long-lasting changes in financial industry structure.
- JEL Code
- G21 : Financial Economics→Financial Institutions and Services→Banks, Depository Institutions, Micro Finance Institutions, Mortgages
C33 : Mathematical and Quantitative Methods→Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models, Multiple Variables→Panel Data Models, Spatio-temporal Models