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Carlijn Eijking

13 September 2023
Large swings in cross-border capital flows can have consequences for domestic stability and open a channel for the transmission of shocks and spillovers across economies, including the euro area. Against this backdrop, the present paper reviews new evidence for the effectiveness of capital flow management policies in achieving macroeconomic and financial stability. Particular attention is paid to literature that has been used by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to underpin its so-called Integrated Policy Framework, in which the roles of monetary, exchange rate, macroprudential and capital flow management policies are considered jointly. The literature published since the global financial crisis continues to affirm the effectiveness of capital flow management measures (CFMs) in addressing financial stability risks resulting from capital flow reversals; at the same time, however, it also continues to underscore that such policies should not substitute for warranted economic adjustments and structural reforms. Even so, recent literature also provides a case for considering, under certain circumstances, “precautionary” CFMs which could be applied to capital inflows to prevent a boom-and-bust cycle from being set in motion. This paper also highlights the need for further work on the long-term effects of such precautionary instruments, as well as their joint use with monetary policy instruments. Regarding capital flow management policies within the domain of central banks, the literature points to the usefulness of foreign exchange interventions (FXIs) in mitigating financial stability risks in countries with specific characteristics such as currency mismatches, borrowing constraints and shallow foreign exchange markets that are common to emerging market and developing economies alike. However, the literature also warns that such measures may reduce economic agents’ incentives to hedge against currency risks, with the result that unfavourable initial conditions beco
JEL Code
F32 : International Economics→International Finance→Current Account Adjustment, Short-Term Capital Movements
F38 : International Economics→International Finance→International Financial Policy: Financial Transactions Tax; Capital Controls
16 October 2019
Conditionality is at the very heart of IMF lending and has been the subject of intense debates ever since the Fund’s inception. Its success is of crucial importance not only for countries’ chances of achieving the goals of IMF lending programmes, but also for the credibility of the Fund as a trusted adviser. This report provides information and a set of facts on the IMF arrangements approved after the global financial crisis, with a focus on ex post conditionality and on arrangements primarily financed through the General Resources Account (GRA). The analysis shows that between 2008 and 2018, the characteristics of IMF programmes evolved with the macroeconomic context; in particular, a tendency towards more structural conditionality and longer programme implementation horizons has emerged. In the aftermath of an IMF programme, all relevant macroeconomic variables tend to improve compared with the pre-programme period; in particular, external and fiscal positions improve considerably and growth typically rebounds, inflation declines and net private capital inflows stabilise or recover slightly. However, the improvement has generally fallen short of expectations, especially in terms of GDP growth and debt reduction. One area in which the effectiveness of IMF programmes has proven less than satisfactory is with serial borrowers, i.e. countries that fail to graduate from IMF financial assistance in due course. This highlights the importance of further analysing the factors behind the success of IMF programmes and points, inter alia, to the need to design and sequence the structural conditions attached to Fund loans more effectively
JEL Code
F3 : International Economics→International Finance
F5 : International Economics→International Relations, National Security, and International Political Economy