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Climate change-related indicators

We are committed to improving the quality and availability of climate data. Because the more we know about the climate crisis, the better we can identify and manage its risks and opportunities. This is why the ECB and the national central banks of all EU Member States together have started developing statistical indicators – harmonised at the euro area level – for climate-related analysis.

These indicators will help us to more effectively analyse climate risks that can affect monetary policy, price stability and the financial system. They will also help us to better understand the challenges and opportunities we face as we transition to a greener economy. Better and more accessible statistics can also enhance transparency on climate-related matters.

The first set of indicators was published in January 2023. Producing these indicators is complex and they are still subject to limitations, some of which are substantial. These limitations mean that, at this stage, the data are published as experimental statistics or analytical indicators and should be used with caution.

These indicators are part of our broader climate action plan. They are a work in progress. Plans are in place to update them based on improved methodology and additional data sources.

We welcome your comments and feedback. Please contact us at To receive updates on methodology and data quality, you are invited to subscribe to our climate data information service.

Sustainable finance

Experimental indicators on issuances and holdings of sustainable debt securities.

More on sustainable finance
Carbon emissions

Analytical indicators on carbon emissions financed by the financial sector loan and securities portfolios.

More on carbon emissions
Physical risks

Analytical indicators on physical risks associated with financial sector loan and securities portfolios.

More on physical risks

Towards climate-related indicators

A detailed report for all indicators, including methodology, data sources and limitations.

Read the full report

Technical annex

Technical details on indicator composition, data sources, compilation methods and limitations.

Have a look at the technical annex

For media

A summary of key insights from our new climate-related statistical indicators and a brief description how this work supports the ECB’s climate agenda.

Read the press release

Discussing our findings

With a view to improving our indicators in the future, we presented our findings at an online event involving various stakeholders in order to hear their feedback. If you have any comment on the presentation, share it with us at

Check out the presentation

Frequently Asked Questions

How does this project relate to our other work on climate topics? What are experimental indicators? Find all the answers in our dedicated FAQs.

Corresponding information from national central banks
De Nederlandsche Bank

Smaller carbon footprint from large investors’ equity portfolios

Suomen Pankki / Finlands Bank

Assessing transition risks in banks’ corporate loan portfolios

National Bank of Belgium

Climate change doesn’t leave the financial sector cold

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