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Climate change-related indicators

We are committed to improving the quality and availability of climate data. Because the more we know about the climate crisis, the better we can identify and manage its risks and opportunities. This is why the ECB and the national central banks of all EU Member States together have started developing statistical indicators – harmonised at the euro area level – for climate-related analysis.

These indicators will help us to more effectively analyse climate risks that can affect monetary policy, price stability and the financial system. They will also help us to better understand the challenges and opportunities we face as we transition to a greener economy. Better and more accessible statistics can also enhance transparency on climate-related matters.

The first set of indicators was published in January 2023. Producing these indicators is complex and they are still subject to limitations, some of which are substantial. These limitations mean that, at this stage, the data are published as experimental statistics or analytical indicators and should be used with caution.

These indicators are part of our broader climate action plan. They are a work in progress. Plans are in place to update them based on improved methodology and additional data sources.

We welcome your comments and feedback. Please contact us at To receive updates on methodology and data quality, you are invited to subscribe to our climate data information service.

Sustainable finance

Experimental indicators on issuances and holdings of sustainable debt securities.

More on sustainable finance
Carbon emissions

Analytical indicators on carbon emissions financed by the financial sector loan and securities portfolios.

More on carbon emissions
Physical risks

Analytical indicators on physical risks associated with financial sector loan and securities portfolios.

More on physical risks

Towards climate-related indicators

A detailed report for all indicators, including methodology, data sources and limitations.

Read the full report

Technical annex

Technical details on indicator composition, data sources, compilation methods and limitations.

Have a look at the technical annex

For media

We have published a first set of climate-related statistical indicators to narrow the climate data gap. Together with national central banks, we will work to improve these indicators in the future.

Read the press release

More on the indicators

The data are published as experimental/analytical indicators – what does this mean?

Experimental data are economic and financial data, collected and compiled by the ECB, whose quality is somewhat lower than that of other ECB statistics. These datasets are nevertheless regarded as sufficiently reliable to be useful for monetary policy purposes and various ESCB tasks, and may therefore also be of interest to users outside the ECB. More details are available on the dedicated web page.

Analytical indicators, as featured in this report, are data that are at a research or work-in-progress stage and have not yet reached the quality of experimental statistics. They can still be relevant if used with care and accompanied by suitable explanation and caveats.

Join our event on Monday, 6 February 2023, from 10:00 to 11:00 CET

We and EU national central banks have developed an initial set of climate-related indicators. During the event, the project sponsors will present key findings so far, the methodology behind the various indicators, and the limitations and data gaps, followed by a Q&A session.

Register here to join the event

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