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Benedetta Bianchi

15 October 2018
This paper studies the relation between the credit-to-GDP ratio and macroeconomic trends. We estimate a long run equation on a sample of EU countries; our findings suggest that the macroeconomic factors with which the credit ratio associates most strongly are economic development, the investment share in GDP, and inflation. We then obtain projections for past and future trends. First, we study the evolution of the credit ratio in the past. We find that most of the increase starting in 1985 is associated with economic development and falling inflation, while the decrease of investment may have slowed down this trend. Second, we offer a forward-looking estimate of the structural credit ratio, defined as the long run, or sustainable, component. We offer band estimates based on two alternative assumptions on future economic outcomes, which can be interpreted as a structural and a cyclical view of current macroeconomic dynamics. Estimates of structural credit ratios based on this method are useful to policy makers having to decide on the activation of the countercyclical capital buffer, especially when assessing the sustainability of credit growth.
JEL Code
E51 : Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics→Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit→Money Supply, Credit, Money Multipliers
G01 : Financial Economics→General→Financial Crises
E44 : Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics→Money and Interest Rates→Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy
15 March 2021
This paper is a first attempt to include credit derivatives in international macro-financial analysis. We document that gross credit derivatives holdings map to bilateral portfolio investment linkages. On a net basis, our results suggest an asymmetry between sectors and between net buyers and net sellers of CDSs. When a banking system is a net buyer of protection, the protection purchased is proportional to the debt securities held. Conversely, when a banking system is a net seller, the protection sold is proportional to the securities held. For investment funds, we find no aggregate relation between net CDSs and the debt securities held.
JEL Code
F34 : International Economics→International Finance→International Lending and Debt Problems
F21 : International Economics→International Factor Movements and International Business→International Investment, Long-Term Capital Movements