Financial stability and macroprudential policy

Financial stability

The ECB monitors developments in the banking sectors of the euro area and the EU as a whole, as well as other financial sectors, to identify any vulnerabilities and check the resilience of the financial system.

It carries out these tasks together with the other central banks of the Eurosystem and the European System of Central Banks.

The emergence of possible systemic risks in the financial system is addressed through macroprudential policies. The overarching goal of macroprudential policy is to preserve financial stability.

Definition of financial stability

Financial stability is a state whereby the build-up of systemic risk is prevented.

Systemic risk can best be described as the risk that the provision of necessary financial products and services by the financial system will be impaired to a point where economic growth and welfare may be materially affected.

Financial Stability Review

Macroprudential policies aim to:

  • prevent the excessive build-up of risk, resulting from external factors and market failures, to smoothen the financial cycle (time dimension)
  • make the financial sector more resilient and limit contagion effects (cross-section dimension)
  • encourage a system-wide perspective in financial regulation to create the right set of incentives for market participants (structural dimension)