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Study on the payment attitudes of consumers in the euro area (SPACE)

The study on the payment attitudes of consumers in the euro area (SPACE) looks at how consumers use different payment methods in euro area countries. It also explores their payment preferences and perceptions concerning access to and acceptance of these means of payment. SPACE helps the ECB to understand consumer demand and evolving market trends and facilitates the implementation of the Eurosystem’s cash and payments strategies.

The study was first conducted in 2019 and follow-up SPACE studies will be carried out on a regular basis to continue our research on payment trends.

Study results

Payment behaviour

Cash remains the most frequently used means of payment in stores but electronic payments have increased further.

More on payment behaviour
Payment preferences

Card and other electronic payment methods are preferred by just over half of euro area consumers. However, they also consider it important to have cash as a payment option.

More on payment preferences
Access and acceptance

Most consumers are overall satisfied with their access to cash. While cash is accepted at most physical payment locations in the euro area, the possibility to pay with electronic means has also increased.

More on access and acceptance

Full release

How are people in the euro area making payments? Find out more about consumers’ behaviour and preferences when it comes to payment methods.

Full report

For the media

This report presents the main results of the second study on the payment attitudes of consumers in the euro area (SPACE). It monitors payment behaviour, preferences, and consumers access to and acceptance of cash and other means of payment.

Press release

At a glance

Download the factsheet with the main takeaways of the study.

SPACE main takeaways

Analyse the results

About the survey

The 2022 SPACE results are based on information collected directly from 50,000 euro area consumers by survey company Kantar Public over two rounds of online and telephone interviews. The first round took place between October and December 2021 while the second was conducted between March and June 2022. The data collection for the next study is planned to start in the autumn of 2023.

The aim of SPACE is to shed light on people’s behaviour and preferences relating to available payment methods. The most recent survey additionally looks at changes in payment behaviour since the start of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, as well as recent trends in digital payments such as the availability and perceived costs of instant payments, and in relation to crypto-assets.

If you have any questions about the survey, please contact us at

Survey background

Aggregate statistics


2022 SPACE microdata

2019 SPACE microdata

2016 SUCH microdata

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