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Study on the payment attitudes of consumers in the euro area (SPACE)

The Study on the payment attitudes of consumers in the euro area (SPACE) looks at how consumers use cash and non-cash means of payment in euro area countries.

What is this study about?

The study covers purchases and payments made by people at the physical point of sale, person-to-person and remotely, for example when shopping online, ordering by phone or paying bills.

SPACE also explores the factors influencing people’s payment attitudes and behaviour, such as payment preferences and the access to each means of payment. The study helps us to understand consumer demand and evolving market trends and facilitates the implementation of the Eurosystem’s cash and retail payment strategies.

How often is this study carried out?

The study was first carried out in 2019 and will be conducted every two years.

Interviews for the next study will take place between September 2021 and May 2022. The survey company Kantar Public will collect the data, and we will publish the results at the end of 2022.

How is the study conducted and how do we protect your data?

Kantar Public will contact more than 40,000 people in the euro area via online and phone interviews. Your feedback is very valuable to us, so please take part in the survey if you are contacted by Kantar Public. The higher the level of participation, the better our data and conclusions.

At the ECB we value the privacy and protection of your data – you will not be asked to provide sensitive information such as credit card numbers and your personal data will not be shared with third parties.

For more information, please contact Meanwhile, see the results from the previous study below.

Study results

Payment behaviour

Cash remained the most popular means of payment for in-person retail payments in 2019.

Card payments

 Card payments were increasingly becoming contactless in 2019.

Impact of the pandemic

Results suggest the coronavirus pandemic accelerated the use of cashless payment methods in 2020.


The results of the 2019 study are broadly comparable with the results of the Study on the use of cash by households (SUCH) carried out in 2016. An overview of the main findings of the 2016 study was published in 2017 in the ECB Occasional Paper entitled Study on the use of cash by households in the euro area (SUCH).

Download all data

Aggregate statistics

Microdata (available for all surveyed countries excluding Germany and the Netherlands)

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