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Climate change-related indicators

We are committed to improving the quality and availability of climate data, because the more we know about the climate crisis, the better we can identify and manage its risks and opportunities. This is why the ECB and the national central banks of all EU Member States have together started developing statistical indicators – harmonised at the euro area level – for climate-related analysis.

These indicators will help us to more effectively analyse climate risks that can affect monetary policy, price stability and the financial system. They will also help us to better understand the challenges and opportunities we face as we transition to a greener economy. Better and more accessible statistics can also enhance transparency on climate-related matters.

The indicators were published for the first time in January 2023. A version with additional breakdowns of the indicators on ”sustainable finance” was released in November 2023. The “carbon emissions” and “physical risks” indicators were updated with significant methodological improvements and additional details in April 2024. Producing these indicators is complex and they are still subject to limitations. These limitations mean that, at this stage, the data are published as experimental statistics or analytical indicators and should be analysed with due care.

These indicators are part of our broader climate action plan. They are a work in progress. Plans are in place to update them based on an improved methodology and additional data sources.

We welcome your comments and feedback. Please contact us at To receive updates on methodology and data quality, you are invited to subscribe to our climate data information service.

Sustainable finance

Experimental indicators on issuances and holdings of sustainable debt securities.

More on sustainable finance
Carbon emissions

Analytical indicators on carbon emissions financed by the financial sector loan and securities portfolios.

More on carbon emissions
Physical risks

Analytical indicators on physical risks associated with financial sector loan and securities portfolios.

More on physical risks

Reference material from the current data release - November 2023 / April 2024

Reference material from the first data release − January 2023

Frequently Asked Questions

How does this project relate to our other work on climate topics? What are experimental indicators? Find all the answers in our dedicated FAQs.

Corresponding information from national central banks
De Nederlandsche Bank

Smaller carbon footprint from large investors’ equity portfolios

Suomen Pankki / Finlands Bank

Assessing transition risks in banks’ corporate loan portfolios

National Bank of Belgium

Climate change doesn’t leave the financial sector cold

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