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Yvo Mudde

13 September 2022
OCCASIONAL PAPER SERIES - No. 304
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Abstract
The Eurosystem implements its monetary policy through a set of monetary policy instruments (MPIs) that are either part of the standard toolbox or are developed to deal with major economic and financial events with a potential adverse impact on price stability and/or the transmission of monetary policy. In the review period covered by this report (2020-2021), monetary policy action was dominated by the Eurosystem’s response to the negative economic effects of the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. Through its action, the Eurosystem continued to expand its balance sheet, in particular by scaling up its outright asset purchases and easing the conditions of its targeted longer-term refinancing operations (TLTROs), complemented by temporary changes in the collateral framework. The accommodative monetary policy stance was preserved by maintaining the key ECB interest rates at record-low levels, reinforced by the ECB’s forward guidance on policy rates. This report provides a full overview of the Eurosystem’s monetary policy implementation over the years 2020 and 2021.
JEL Code
D02 : Microeconomics→General→Institutions: Design, Formation, and Operations
E43 : Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics→Money and Interest Rates→Interest Rates: Determination, Term Structure, and Effects
E58 : Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics→Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit→Central Banks and Their Policies
E65 : Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics→Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook→Studies of Particular Policy Episodes
G01 : Financial Economics→General→Financial Crises
14 June 2022
WORKING PAPER SERIES - No. 2668
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Abstract
When a bank receives credit from the central bank, its Liquidity Coverage Ratio (LCR) changes. In most cases, the LCR increases. We investigate how this LCR boost from central bank credit affects banks’ behaviour, looking at the euro area during the Corona year 2020. Our theoretical and empirical analyses suggest that banks that get strong LCR boosts from central bank credit tend to take actions that reduce their LCRs. In this sense, banks consume their LCR boosts. In terms of policy conclusions, our analysis suggests that central bank credit operations can provide strong incentives for banks to take actions that reduce their LCRs. Such actions, which could include the provision of additional credit and a shortening of the maturity structure of the liabilities of the banks, plausibly have an impact on the real economy. As such, our analysis reveals what may be called a “LCR channel” of monetary policy transmission.
JEL Code
E52 : Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics→Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit→Monetary Policy
E58 : Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics→Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit→Central Banks and Their Policies
G28 : Financial Economics→Financial Institutions and Services→Government Policy and Regulation
22 September 2021
OCCASIONAL PAPER SERIES - No. 282
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Abstract
This paper discusses commercial banks’ demand for central bank reserves under two alternative monetary policy framework configurations, namely: (i) an interest rate corridor system with scarce liquidity, and (ii) a floor system with ample liquidity. It outlines the interaction between the monetary implementation framework used to steer short-term market interest rates and banks’ demand for reserves. We find that by implementing a floor system, the Eurosystem has eliminated the opportunity costs of holding reserves and enabled banks to hold relatively large buffers of reserves compared with the corridor system. Additionally, the demand for reserves may have increased endogenously, as the environment of ample liquidity conditions has incentivised many banks to adapt their business models. In parallel, the demand for reserves has also increased for more exogenous reasons such as post-global financial crisis liquidity regulation and increased liquidity concentration. Our estimates indicate an increase, over recent years, in the level of excess liquidity required in the euro area to avoid a rise in short-term market rates. Moreover, the dependency on the adopted monetary policy instruments and the external environment highlights the increased uncertainty in estimating future levels of required reserves
JEL Code
E41 : Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics→Money and Interest Rates→Demand for Money
E44 : Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics→Money and Interest Rates→Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy
E50 : Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics→Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit→General
E51 : Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics→Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit→Money Supply, Credit, Money Multipliers
E58 : Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics→Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit→Central Banks and Their Policies