Lists of financial institutions
The ECB maintains lists of the following groups of institutions, based on information provided regularly by all members of the European System of Central Banks (ESCB).
For further information, check our Frequently asked questions.
Monetary financial institutions (MFIs)
In order for it to have a comprehensive picture of monetary developments, the ECB collects statistical information from MFIs – the “money-issuing sector”. MFIs, as defined by the ECB in Regulation ECB/2021/2, comprise the following statistical sectors
- central banks (S121), i.e. the national central banks of the EU Member States and the European Central Bank;
- deposit-taking corporations except central banks (S122), which are:
- credit institutions, as defined in Article 4(1)(1) of Regulation (EU) No 575/2013, the business of which is to take deposits or other repayable funds from the public and to grant credits for their own account;
- financial intermediaries other than credit institutions whose business is to receive deposits and/or close substitutes for deposits from institutional units (including from non-MFIs) and to grant loans and/or make investments in securities on their own account;
- electronic money institutions, as defined in Article 2(1) of Directive 2009/110/EC, that are principally engaged in financial intermediation in the form of issuing electronic money;
- money market funds (S123), i.e. collective investment undertakings that have been authorised pursuant to Article 4 of Regulation (EU) 2017/1131 and that issue shares or units which are close substitutes for deposits.
MFIs do not include “non-MFI credit institutions”, which are credit institutions that are investment firms and that only conduct the business referred to in Article 4(1)(1)(b) of Regulation (EU) No 575/2013. These are instead classified in the sector “Other financial intermediaries, except insurance corporations and pension funds” (S125).
In accordance with Regulation ECB/2021/2, the ECB maintains and regularly updates a list of MFIs. This list:
- facilitates the monitoring and production of a comprehensive and consistent balance sheet of the money-creating sector in the euro area on the basis of an MFI population corresponding to sectors S121, S122 and S123 of the European System of Accounts 2010 (ESA 2010);
- ensures that the statistical reporting population is complete and homogeneous;
- supports the production of comprehensive and consistent lists of credit institutions subject to the Eurosystem’s minimum reserve requirements and counterparties eligible for Eurosystem operations.
The ECB releases updated information on the list of MFIs on a daily basis. Downloads are available as tab-delimited CSV files. Alternatively, user-defined queries can be performed directly via the MFI data access facility.The latest data are available via the Statistical Data Warehouse (SDW)
In addition the following material is refreshed on a monthly basis:Archived MFI publications
Investment funds (IFs)
"Investment funds" (IFs) are collective investment undertakings that: i) invest in financial and non-financial assets, within the meaning of the European system of national and regional accounts in the Community (ESA 95), to the extent that the objective is to invest capital raised from the public; and ii) are set up under Community or national law.
Included within the definition of IFs are: undertakings whose units or shares are, at the request of the holders, repurchased or redeemed directly or indirectly out of the undertaking’s assets; and undertakings which have a fixed number of issued shares and whose shareholders have to buy or sell existing shares when entering or leaving the fund.
Not included in the definition of IFs are pension funds and money market funds (which come under the MFIs).
Information on IFs is collected:
- to provide the ECB with a comprehensive statistical picture of the financial activities of the IF sub-sector; and
- to ensure that the statistical reporting population on IFs is complete and homogeneous.
The legal framework for IFs is set out in Regulation (EU) No 1073/2013 of the European Central Bank of 18 October 2013 concerning statistics on the assets and liabilities of investment funds (ECB/2013/38).
The ECB releases a quarterly update on the list of IFs (nine weeks after the end of the quarter to which the list refers) and also revised lists for three reference periods preceding the latest release.
Published details regarding the list of IFs, including historical data:
Financial vehicle corporations (FVCs)
"Financial vehicle corporations" (FVCs) are undertakings set up under national or Community law which primarily:
- to carry out securitisation transactions and which are insulated from the risk of bankruptcy or any other default of the originator; and which
- issue securities, securitisation fund units, other debt instruments and/or financial derivatives and/or legally or economically own assets underlying the issue of securities, securitisation fund units, other debt instruments and/or financial derivatives that are offered for sale to the public or sold on the basis of private placements.
Neither MFIs (see first tab above) nor IFs (see second tab above) are included in the definition of FVCs.
"Securitisation" means a transaction or scheme whereby: i) an asset or pool of assets is transferred to an entity that is separate from the originator and is created for or serves the purpose of the securitisation; and/or ii) the credit risk of an asset or pool of assets, or part thereof, is transferred to those who invest in the securities, securitisation fund units, other debt instruments and/or financial derivatives issued by an entity that is separate from the originator and is created for or serves the purpose of the securitisation.
Information on FVCs is collected:
- to provide the ECB with a comprehensive statistical picture of the financial activities of the FVC sub-sector; and
- to ensure that the statistical reporting population on FVCs is complete and homogeneous.
The legal framework for FVCs is set out in Regulation (EU) No 1075/2013 of the European Central Bank of 18 October 2013 concerning statistics on the assets and liabilities of financial vehicle corporations engaged in securitisation transactions (ECB/2013/40).
The ECB releases a quarterly update on the list of FVCs (three weeks after the end of the quarter to which the list refers) and also revised lists for three reference periods preceding the latest release.
Published details regarding the list of FVCs, including historical data:
Payment statistics relevant institutions (PSRIs)
“Payment statistics relevant institutions” (PSRIs) are payment service providers (including electronic money issuers) and payment system operators. PSRIs offer payment services and/or are entitled to do so. They can be classified in different institutional sectors.
Payment service providers include the following entities:
- credit institutions meaning undertakings whose business is to receive deposits or other repayable funds from the public and to grant credits for their own account;
- electronic money institutions meaning legal persons authorised to issue electronic money, i.e. electronically, including magnetically, stored monetary value issued on receipt of funds and which can be used to make payments;
- post office giro institutions which are entitled under national law to provide payment services;
- the European Central Bank and national central banks (NCBs) when not acting in their capacity as monetary authority or other public authorities;
- Member States or their regional or local authorities when not acting in their capacity as public authorities;
- payment institutions meaning legal persons other than those listed above authorised to provide and execute payment services throughout the EU.
Payment system operators are entities that are legally responsible for operating a payment system.
The ECB maintains and updates the list of PSRIs every year. The list also includes information on entities that have been granted a derogation by an NCB with regard to the payments statistics reporting requirements.
In compliance with its legal obligations, the ECB publishes these reference data on a regular basis, provided that the information is not confidential.
Insurance corporations (ICs)
“Insurance corporations” (ICs) are financial corporations or quasi-corporations that are principally engaged in financial intermediation as a consequence of the pooling of risks, mainly in the form of direct insurance or reinsurance.
Insurance corporations include financial corporations or quasi-corporations that provide:
- life insurance services, where policyholders make regular or one-off payments to the insurer in return for which the insurer guarantees to give policyholders an agreed sum, or an annuity, at a given date or earlier;
- non-life insurance services to cover, for example, risks of accidents, sickness, fire or credit default;
- reinsurance services, where insurance is bought by the insurer to protect itself against an unexpectedly high number of claims or exceptionally large claims.
Information on ICs is collected:
- to provide the ECB with a comprehensive statistical picture of the financial activities of the IC sub-sector;
- to ensure that the reporting population of IC statistics is complete and homogeneous;
- to ensure the production of a comprehensive and consistent list of counterparties eligible for Eurosystem operations.
The legal framework for ICs is set out in Regulation (EU) No 1374/2014 of the European Central Bank of 28 November 2014 on statistical reporting requirements for insurance corporations.
Pension funds (PFs)
"Pension funds" (PFs) are financial intermediaries which offer social insurance by providing income to the insured persons following their retirement. They also often provide death and disability benefits. Pension schemes are important cornerstones of European households’ income during retirement. Pension funds also play a role in financial markets as institutional investors. For these reasons, the ECB collects statistics on the balance sheets of pension funds for its analyses of the financial system and household wealth.
Information on PFs is collected:
- to provide the ECB with a comprehensive statistical picture of the financial activities of the PF sector;
- to ensure that the reporting population of PF statistics is complete and homogeneous;
- to produce a comprehensive and consistent list of counterparties eligible for Eurosystem operations.
The legal framework for PFs is set out in Regulation (EU) No 2018/231 of the European Central Bank of 26 January 2018 on statistical reporting requirements for pension funds (ECB/2018/2) (“the Regulation”).
In compliance with Article 3 of the Regulation, the ECB publishes and maintains, for statistical purposes, the following list of PFs and pension managers that are part of the actual reporting population subject to the Regulation. The list may include information on entities that have been granted a derogation by an NCB in accordance with Article 7 of the Regulation.
An analysis of the initial PF data was published on the Economic bulletin.
- Overview of the total number of PFs, including historical data (broken down by country and type of scheme) last update: 09 July 2021
- Published details regarding the list of PFs, including historical data last update: 09 July 2021
- Definitions of attributes on the list of PFs last update: 11 February 2021
More information on pension funds.