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Sami Vähämaa

4 March 2004
WORKING PAPER SERIES - No. 315
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Abstract
This paper uses data on German government bond futures options to examine the behaviour of market expectations around monetary policy actions of the European Central Bank (ECB). In particular, this paper focuses on the asymmetries in bond market expectations, as measured by the skewness of option-implied probability distributions of future bond yields. The results show that market expectations are systematically asymmetric around monetary policy actions of the ECB. Around monetary policy tightening, option-implied yield distributions are positively skewed, indicating that market participants attach higher probabilities for sharp yield increases than for sharp decreases. Correspondingly, around loosening of the policy, implied yield distributions are negatively skewed, suggesting that markets assign higher probabilities for sharp yield decreases than for increases. Furthermore, the results indicate that market expectations are significantly altered around monetary policy actions, as asymmetries in market expectations tend to increase before changes in the monetary policy stance, and to decrease afterwards.
JEL Code
E44 : Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics→Money and Interest Rates→Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy
E52 : Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics→Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit→Monetary Policy
G10 : Financial Economics→General Financial Markets→General
G13 : Financial Economics→General Financial Markets→Contingent Pricing, Futures Pricing
28 September 2005
WORKING PAPER SERIES - No. 530
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Abstract
This paper examines the cross-dynamics of volatility term structures implied by foreign exchange options. The data used in the empirical analysis consist of daily observations of implied volatilities for OTC options on the euro, Japanese yen, British pound, Swiss franc, and Canadian dollar, quoted against the U.S. dollar. The empirical findings demonstrate that two common factors can explain a vast proportion of the variation in volatility term structures across currencies. Furthermore, the results indicate that the euro is the dominant currency, as the implied volatility term structure of the euro is found to affect all the other volatility term structures, while the term structure of the euro appears to be virtually unaffected by the other currencies. Finally, our results reveal a rather deviant relation between the volatility term structures of the euro and Swiss franc by providing evidence of significant nonlinearities in the relationship between these two currencies.
JEL Code
E52 : Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics→Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit→Monetary Policy
E58 : Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics→Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit→Central Banks and Their Policies
F33 : International Economics→International Finance→International Monetary Arrangements and Institutions
F40 : International Economics→Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance→General