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Heiko Schmiedel

7 July 2005
OCCASIONAL PAPER SERIES - No. 33
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Abstract
This paper investigates the state and process of integration of the European securities market infrastructure. The integration of financial infrastructures is one of the basic policy goals and key responsibilities of the Eurosystem. The paper finds that, despite the single currency, the euro area securities infrastructure remains highly fragmented and insufficiently integrated. There are still a high number of providers for trading, clearing and settlement, and they are not efficiently connected to one another. The paper also finds that the degree of consolidation varies among different integrated groups of market infrastructure. Economies of scale and scope and positive network externalities inherent in the securities services industry mean that substantial cost savings and increased efficiency can be expected from further integration. The most relevant factors underlying the less advanced areas of integration are likely to be not only persistent cross-border differences in tax regimes, procedures and laws, but also vested interests among users, owners and managers. Current work at the Eurosystem level can be expected to be helpful in promoting further integration.
JEL Code
L1 : Industrial Organization→Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance
20 December 2006
WORKING PAPER SERIES - No. 701
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Abstract
This paper attempts to estimate comparable efficiency scores for European banks operating in the Single Market in the EU. Using a data set of more than 5000 large commercial banks from all major European banking markets over the period 1993-2004, the application of meta-frontiers enables us to assess the existence of a single and integrated European banking market. We find evidence in favor of a single European banking market characterized by cost and profit meta-frontiers. However, compared to the meta-frontier estimations, pooled frontier estimations tend to underestimate efficiency levels and correlate poorly with country-specific frontier efficiency ranks.
JEL Code
G21 : Financial Economics→Financial Institutions and Services→Banks, Depository Institutions, Micro Finance Institutions, Mortgages
L11 : Industrial Organization→Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance→Production, Pricing, and Market Structure, Size Distribution of Firms
L22 : Industrial Organization→Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior→Firm Organization and Market Structure
L23 : Industrial Organization→Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior→Organization of Production
22 August 2007
OCCASIONAL PAPER SERIES - No. 71
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Abstract
With the realisation of the Single Euro Payments Area (SEPA), there will be no difference in the euro area between national and cross-border retail payments. SEPA is aimed at fostering competition and innovation, and improving conditions for customers. This requires concerted efforts from various stakeholders, in particular the banking industry, to align national practices. The Eurosystem strongly supports the SEPA project. In its catalyst role, the European Central Bank (ECB) closely monitors and assesses the overall development of SEPA. Against this background, the ECB has carried out in cooperation with the banking industry a SEPA impact study with the aim of enriching its understanding of the potential economic consequences of SEPA. Based on the quantitative and qualitative expectations of major pan-European banks, the study finds that the overall financial impact for the banking industry varies according to different scenarios of the SEPA project. The coexistence of national and SEPA retail payment schemes is expected to lead to initial investments borne by the banks. In the longer term, banks expect to benefit from improved cost efficiency and economies of scale and scope. Furthermore, banks are expected to face downward pressure on their revenues as competition will increase across borders and as a result of new market entrants. The findings of the study confirm the view that a dual SEPA implementation phase should be as short as possible. In fact, a longer migration period would give rise to higher costs than a shorter period. It can furthermore be concluded that those institutions that embrace new technological developments, create new businesses and provide innovative services are likely to gain most from SEPA.
JEL Code
G21 : Financial Economics→Financial Institutions and Services→Banks, Depository Institutions, Micro Finance Institutions, Mortgages
L11 : Industrial Organization→Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance→Production, Pricing, and Market Structure, Size Distribution of Firms
L22 : Industrial Organization→Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior→Firm Organization and Market Structure
30 December 2009
WORKING PAPER SERIES - No. 1140
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Abstract
This paper analyses the welfare implications of creating a Single Euro Payments Area. We study the effects of increased network compatibility and payment scale economies on consumer and merchant card fees and its impact on card usage. In particular, we model competition among debit cards and between debit and credit cards. We show that competitive pressures dampen merchant fees and increase total card acceptance. The paper argues that there is room for multilateral interchange fee arrangements to achieve optimal consumer and merchant fees, taking safety, income uncertainty, default risk, merchant's pricing power, and the avoided cost of cash at the retailers side into account. Consumers and merchants are likely to benefit the most from the creation of SEPA when sufficient payment card competition alleviates potential monopolistic tendencies.
JEL Code
L11 : Industrial Organization→Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance→Production, Pricing, and Market Structure, Size Distribution of Firms
G21 : Financial Economics→Financial Institutions and Services→Banks, Depository Institutions, Micro Finance Institutions, Mortgages
D53 : Microeconomics→General Equilibrium and Disequilibrium→Financial Markets
Network
Retail payments: integration & innovation
30 December 2009
WORKING PAPER SERIES - No. 1135
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Abstract
The European banking industry joined forces to achieve a fully integrated market for retail payment services in the euro area: the Single Euro Payments Area (SEPA). Against this background, the present paper examines the fundamental relationship between retail payment business and overall bank performance. Using data from across 27 European markets over the period 2000-07, we analyse whether the provisions of retail payment services are reflected in improved bank performance, using accounting ratios and efficiency measures. The results confirm that the performance of banks in countries with more developed retail payment service markets is better. This relationship is stronger in countries with a relatively high adoption of retail payment transaction technologies. Retail payment transaction technology itself can also improve bank performance, and evidence shows that heterogeneity in retail payment instruments is associated with enhanced bank performance. Similarly, a higher usage of electronic retail payment instruments seems to stimulate banking business. We also show that retail payment services have a more significant impact on savings and cooperative bank performance although they have a positive influence on the performance of commercial banks. Additionally, findings reveal that impact of retail services on bank performance is dominated by fee income. Finally, an effective payment service market is found to be associated with higher bank stability. Our findings are robust to different regression specifications. The results may also be informative for the industry when reconsidering its business models in the light of current financial market developments.
JEL Code
G21 : Financial Economics→Financial Institutions and Services→Banks, Depository Institutions, Micro Finance Institutions, Mortgages
G28 : Financial Economics→Financial Institutions and Services→Government Policy and Regulation
Network
Retail payments: integration & innovation
4 June 2010
WORKING PAPER SERIES - No. 1201
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Abstract
In recent years, demutualized stock exchanges have been increasingly engaging in M&A and alliance activities. To examine the effect of these growth strategies on exchange shareholders’ value creation, we focus on 14 public stock exchanges and investigate their short-run share price responses to the formation of 110 M&As and alliances all over the world spanning the period 2000-2008. Our findings show that the average stock price responses for M&As and alliances are positive. M&As create more value than alliances. For alliances, joint ventures generate more value than non-equity alliances. More value accrues when the integration is horizontal (cross-border) than when it is vertical (domestic). Additionally, there is evidence of learning-by-doing effects in stock exchange integration activities. Finally, we find that the better the shareholder protection, accounting standards and capital market development in the partner exchange’s country, the higher the merger and alliance premium for our sample exchange. These patterns are consistent when we examine the exchanges’ long-run performance.
JEL Code
L22 : Industrial Organization→Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior→Firm Organization and Market Structure
G32 : Financial Economics→Corporate Finance and Governance→Financing Policy, Financial Risk and Risk Management, Capital and Ownership Structure, Value of Firms, Goodwill
D23 : Microeconomics→Production and Organizations→Organizational Behavior, Transaction Costs, Property Rights
7 October 2011
OCCASIONAL PAPER SERIES - No. 131
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Abstract
The present paper explores issues surrounding multilateral interchange fees (MIFs) in payment card markets from various angles. The Eurosystem
JEL Code
C43 : Mathematical and Quantitative Methods→Econometric and Statistical Methods: Special Topics→Index Numbers and Aggregation
E31 : Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics→Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles→Price Level, Inflation, Deflation
28 October 2011
WORKING PAPER SERIES - No. 1387
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Abstract
We consider debit and credit card networks. Our contribution is to introduce the role of consumer credit into these payment networks, and to assess the way this affects competition and equilibrium fees. We analyse a situation in which overdrafts are associated with current accounts and debit cards, and larger credit lines with
JEL Code
L11 : Industrial Organization→Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance→Production, Pricing, and Market Structure, Size Distribution of Firms
G21 : Financial Economics→Financial Institutions and Services→Banks, Depository Institutions, Micro Finance Institutions, Mortgages
D53 : Microeconomics→General Equilibrium and Disequilibrium→Financial Markets
Network
Conference on the future of retail payments: opportunities and challenges
1 October 2012
OCCASIONAL PAPER SERIES - No. 137
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Abstract
The European Central Bank (ECB) carried out a study of the social and private costs of different payment instruments with the participation of 13 national central banks in the European System of Central Banks (ESCB). It shows that the costs to society of providing retail payment services are substantial. On average, they amount to almost 1% of GDP for the sample of participating EU countries. Half of the social costs are incurred by banks and infrastructures, while the other half of all costs are incurred by retailers. The social costs of cash payments represent nearly half of the total social costs, while cash payments have on average the lowest costs per transaction, followed closely by debit card payments. However, in some countries, cash does not always yield the lowest unit costs. Despite countries' own market characteristics, the European market for retail payments can be grouped into five distinct payment clusters with respect to the social costs of payment instruments, market development, and payment behaviour. The results from the present study may trigger a constructive debate about which policy measures and payment instruments are suitable for improving social welfare and realising potential cost savings along the transaction value chain.
JEL Code
D12 : Microeconomics→Household Behavior and Family Economics→Consumer Economics: Empirical Analysis
D23 : Microeconomics→Production and Organizations→Organizational Behavior, Transaction Costs, Property Rights
D24 : Microeconomics→Production and Organizations→Production, Cost, Capital, Capital, Total Factor, and Multifactor Productivity, Capacity
O52 : Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth→Economywide Country Studies→Europe
18 June 2013
OCCASIONAL PAPER SERIES - No. 147
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Abstract
Financial integration in some segments of the financial markets started to deteriorate during the recent period of economic turmoil in Europe. This paper examines whether this phenomenon also holds true for the European retail payments market. In comparison with other segments of the financial markets, the integration of the retail payments market has been more difficult to quantify, and the effects of recent developments - including the creation of the Single Euro Payments Area (SEPA) and the economic crisis - have been hard to evaluate using existing measures of integration. As an indicator of financial integration, convergence in the European retail payments market is measured during the period 1995-2011 for the most used retail payment instruments: cash, debit card, credit card, direct debit, credit transfer, cheque and e-money. Two methods for estimating convergence are used: sigma convergence and beta convergence. There is some evidence of convergence for all payment instruments, except for cheques and e-money. The results suggest that the cross-country dispersion of the use of payment instruments has declined over time in Europe. The pace of convergence has picked up since the introduction of the single currency. There is also some evidence of beta convergence. In contrast to some other segments of the financial markets, integration in the retail payments market has not deteriorated during the financial crisis.
JEL Code
F36 : International Economics→International Finance→Financial Aspects of Economic Integration
G20 : Financial Economics→Financial Institutions and Services→General
5 August 2013
WORKING PAPER SERIES - No. 1572
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Abstract
This paper examines the fundamental relationship between retail payments and the real economy. Using data from across 27 European markets over the period 1995-2009, the results confirm that migration to efficient electronic retail payments stimulates the overall economy, consumption and trade. Among different payment instruments, this relationship is strongest for card payments, followed by credit transfers. Cheque payments are found to have a relatively low macroeconomic impact. Retail payment transaction technology itself is also associated positively to real economic aggregates. We also show that initiatives to integrate and harmonise retail payment markets foster trade and consumption and thereby have a beneficial effect for whole economy. Additionally, the findings reveal that the impact of retail payments on the real economy is more pronounced in euro area countries. Our findings are robust to different regression specifications. The study supports the adoption of policies promoting a swift migration to efficient and harmonised electronic payment instruments.
JEL Code
G20 : Financial Economics→Financial Institutions and Services→General
G21 : Financial Economics→Financial Institutions and Services→Banks, Depository Institutions, Micro Finance Institutions, Mortgages