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Working paper series

In-depth studies for experts

Our Working Paper Series (WPS) disseminates economic research relevant to the various tasks and functions of the ECB, and provides a conceptual and empirical basis for policy-making. The Working Papers constitute “work in progress”. They are published to stimulate discussion and contribute to the advancement of our knowledge of economic matters. They are addressed to experts, so readers should be knowledgeable in economics.

Discussion papers

Discussion papers differ from standard working papers in that they are more broadly accessible and offer a more balanced perspective. While partly based on original research, they place the analysis in the wider context of the literature on the topic and also explicitly consider the policy perspective.

Availability: ECB Working Papers are available online only, get updated on latest Working Paper releases by RSS news feed.

No. 1991
23 Jan 2017
Below the zero lower bound: a shadow-rate term structure model for the euro area
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No. 1990
20 Jan 2017
Financial inclusion: what’s it worth?
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No. 1989
20 Jan 2017
Revenue elasticities in euro area countries
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Disclaimer: Please keep in mind that the papers are published in the name of the author(s). Their views do not necessarily reflect those of the ECB.