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Banknotes and coins circulation

The statistics on this page are updated around the 14th working day of each month. They cover

  • data on outstanding amounts (stocks) of euro banknotes and coins in circulation
  • transactions data (flows) on the banknotes and coins issued into circulation, returned from circulation, sorted to check authenticity & fitness and sorted to unfit during the reporting period
  • the number of NCBs/commercial banks branches providing cash in the euro area
  • the value of euro collector coins not intended for circulation issued by the euro area Member States.

The main aggregates for these statistics are shown on this page. More data are available through the Statistical Data Warehouse (see below). Data are not seasonally adjusted.

The ECB closely monitors the stock and circulation of euro banknotes and coins. It is the Eurosystem’s task to ensure a smooth and efficient supply of euro banknotes and to maintain their integrity.

Data

Alternative data formats

  • Circulation of euro banknotes, quantities report and data
  • Circulation of euro banknotes, values report and data
  • Circulation of euro coins, quantities report and data
  • Circulation of euro coins, values report and data

Statistical Data Warehouse – Interactive data access

Time series start from January 2002. Stock data refer to the amount outstanding at the end of the reporting period. Flows data refer to the cumulated amount between the first and the last day of the reporting period.

Background

Difference between the item "Circulation of euro banknotes and coins" in Banknotes Statistics and the liability category "Currency in circulation" in Monetary Statistics

The difference between the item "Circulation of euro banknotes and coins" in Banknotes and Coins Statistics and the category of "Currency in circulation" in the aggregated balance sheet of Monetary and Financial Institutions (MFIs), which amounts to approximately €1 billion, or 0.2% in terms of the total issuance, is largely due to the different treatment of collector coins in the participating Member States. In addition, differences arise in data for the year 2002 and for the months after each euro area enlargement, when discrepancies between the two items can be larger due to the inclusion of legacy currencies in the category "Currency in circulation". Euro collector coins are by definition not destined for circulation and only have legal tender status in the country of issue. They are thus excluded from the Banknotes statistics figure of "Circulation of euro banknotes and coins" but are included, at least by some participating Member States, in the Monetary Statistics item "Currency in circulation". In Banknotes and Coins Statistics, information on Euro collector coins is contained in a separate series called "Collector coins issued net of collector coins returned".

  Banknotes and Coins Statistics Monetary Statistics  
in EUR millions Net circulation of banknotes and coins (1) Collector coins issued net of collector coins returned (*) (2) Currency in circulation [MFI aggregated balance sheet] (3) Difference between (1) and (3)
2008 783,179 1,590 784,661 -1,482
2009 827,728 1,910 829,281 -1,553
2010 861,973 2,258 863,718 -1,745

* Collector coins not intended for circulation have legal tender status only in the country of issue and are not produced with a view to their use as a means of payment. They must be readily distinguishable from euro circulation coins, which include normal coins and commemorative coins.


As regards the MFI consolidated balance sheet, the figure of "Circulation of euro banknotes and coins" from the Banknotes and Coins Statistics differs more significantly from the Monetary Statistics' "Currency in circulation". This is because "Currency in circulation" as presented in the MFI consolidated balance sheet only refers to banknotes and coins circulating outside the MFI sector. "Vault cash", i.e. currency held by MFIs in order to meet day-to-day business needs, is not included in the consolidated figure.

Monthly monetary statistics on currency in circulation are published in the ECB Monthly Bulletin, Euro area statistics section, Tables 2.1 and 2.2. For interactive data access see the relevant reports in the SDW

Glossary of terms

Net circulation of banknotes and coins
The number and value of euro banknotes issued by the Eurosystem central banks, without further distinction as to who is holding the currency issued, thus also including the stocks held by credit institutions.

Collector coins issued net of collector coins returned
The total face value of all Euro collector coins, which are defined as coins not intended for circulation. Euro collector coins have legal tender status in the country of issue but not in the other participating member states and must be readily distinguishable from Euro circulation coins. Official definitions of "Euro circulation coins" and "Euro collector coins" can be found in OJ C 247, 15.10.0203, p.5

Banknotes and coins returned from circulation
The number and value of banknotes and coins returned to the reporting NCB during the reporting period.

Banknotes and coins sorted to check authenticity & fitness
The number and value of banknotes checked for authenticity and fitness by the reporting NCB on banknotes sorting machines or manually, during the reporting period.

Sorted to unfit
The number and value of banknotes sorted to unfit, and thus withdrawn from circulation, during the reporting period.