Occasional papers published in 2002
Communication device to a broad audience
Our Occasional Paper Series (OPS) disseminates work carried out by, as a rule, ECB staff on subjects that relate to the main tasks and functions of the ECB and the ESCB. Occasional Papers (OPs) are addressed to a wide audience, including other policy-makers, financial analysts, academics, the media and the interested general public. Understanding the papers will normally require some prior knowledge of the topic.
- No. 7
28 December 2002
- Economic relations with regions neighbouring the euro area in the "euro time zone"
This paper reviews the economic, monetary and financial relations between the EU and the euro area and a set of countries in a broad set of neighbouring regions. The 80 or so countries are mostly classified as transition, emerging or developing economies and belong to four main regions: the Western Balkans; the European part of the Commonwealth of Independent States; the Middle East and Northern Africa; and Sub-Saharan Africa. In many respects, these countries are diverse; however, some common features can also be identified. One of these common features is the fact that the euro area is their largest trading partner and the largest originator of international bank credit, foreign direct investment and official development assistance; meanwhile, from a euro area perspective, while these countries account for a somewhat smaller share of external trade, they are important as providers of energy, other raw materials and agricultural products.
- No. 6
28 December 2002
- Banking integration in the euro area
This paper provides an assessment of the degree of integration in banking services in the euro area. It diverges from the typical analysis on integration in the financial sector by focusing on the main financial products and services provided by banks to corporate and personal clients rather than on financial markets. As the “law-of-one-price” concept is often not applicable to banking products and services, a wide range of quantitative and qualitative indicators of integration is used in the analysis. Indicators of integration are reviewed for three product areas: wholesale (unsecured interbank loans and deposits, repo market) capital market-related (corporate finance services, asset management and trading) and retail (directed to households and small firms). The main conclusions are that while the market on wholesale banking services is strongly integrated and integration is advancing at a fast pace in capital market-related activities, market segmentation is still significant at the retail level.
- No. 5
28 September 2002
- The evolution of clearing and central counterparty services for exchange-traded derivatives in the United States and Europe: a comparison
This paper is organised as follows. Section 1 explains why issues concerning central counterparty clearing houses are of direct concern to central banks and why a comparison of the European and the US situation is of interest. Section 2 provides a comparative overview of the organisation of derivatives exchanges in the United States and in Europe. Section 3 focuses on the organisation of clearing, covering a broad range of aspects. Section 4 analyses operational developments in international risk management practices and arrangements. Section 5 discusses various forms of structural consolidation in the clearing and settlement infrastructure by highlighting the different approaches taken in the United States and in Europe. Section 6 is devoted to the roles of central banks and financial market regulators regarding clearing and to the challenges they face as a result of current innovations in clearing arrangements. Finally, Section 7 summarises some of the main findings.
- No. 4
28 July 2002
- Labour force developments in the euro area since the 1980s
This paper aims, first, at assessing the relative importance of working age population and participation rates to explain labour force developments in the euro area between 1983 and 2000. It also compares participation rates in the euro area vis-à-vis the US, considering age and gender groups. It shows that the effect of population growth on labour force developments is losing importance relative to the effects of changes in the participation rate. Indeed, in the last few years, the effects of changes in the participation rate have exceeded those of the increase in working age population. This trend is expected to continue in the coming years. As regards the comparison of the euro area with the US, it shows a continuing large difference in women’s participation rate and among the youngest and oldest men’s age groups in the US versus the euro area, giving room for future positive contributions coming from participation in the euro area.
- No. 3
28 May 2002
- Estimating the trend of M3 income velocity underlying the reference value for monetary growth
This paper documents the analytical work that was carried out for the 2001 review of the assumption for the trend in M3 income velocity used to calculate the reference value for M3 growth. We analyse the medium-term trend in velocity using univariate time series tools and different money demand models. In addition, some cross-checking is carried out to address data compilation issues related to the accession of Greece in 2001 and to different weighting schemes used to aggregate historical euro area data. It is found that the trend decline in M3 income velocity over the medium term is within a range of 1/2% to 1% per year.
- No. 2
28 February 2002
- The effective exchange rates of the euro
F31 : International Economics→International Finance→Foreign Exchange
F41 : International Economics→Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance→Open Economy Macroeconomics
E31 : Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics→Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles→Price Level, Inflation, Deflation
This paper details the methodological framework underlying the construction of the effective exchange rate (EER) indicators of the euro. This framework yields two sets of indicators - (i) one nominal and several real EER indices against a narrow reference group of euro area trading partners based on different price and cost deflators; and (ii) a nominal and a real EER index against a broad reference group of countries based on consumer prices. The narrow group consists of 12 industrial and newly industrialised euro area partner countries, while the broad group is made up of 38 trading partners including emerging market economies and economies in transition. In addition the paper computes national competitiveness indicators for the individual euro area participating countries. Finally, recent developments in the international price and cost competitiveness of the euro area as well as of euro area countries are briefly discussed on the basis of the constructed indices.
Disclaimer: Please keep in mind that OPs are published in the name of the author(s). Their views do not necessarily reflect those of the ECB.